The World Health Organization has recommended pilot implementation of a candidate vaccine against malaria (RTS,S/AS01) in selected sub-Saharan African countries. This exploratory study aimed to estimate the costs of implementing RTS,S in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania.
Indian-origin rhesus (InR) are preferred for research, but strict export restrictions continue to limit their use. Chinese-origin rhesus (ChR), although easier to procure, are genetically distinct from InR and differ in their immune response to infectious agents, such as the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S (GlaxoSmithKline), is based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum.
So far, only the quantity of anti-CSP IgG has been measured and used to predict vaccination success, although quality (measured as avidity) of the antigen-antibody interaction shall be important since only a few sporozoites circulate for a short time after an infectious mosquito bite, likely requiring fast and strong binding.
This article describes the progress made in critical areas since 2010, highlights key challenges that remain, and outlines important next steps to maximize the potential for SSM-VIMTs to contribute to the broader malaria elimination and eradication objectives.
Interim reports from this largest ever Phase III pediatric trial in Africa show the malaria vaccine decreased clinical and severe disease by 56% and 47% respectively in 5–17 month olds, and by 31% and 26% respectively in infants participating in the Expanded Programme on Immunization.