Tanzanian adult male volunteers were immunized by direct venous inoculation with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ Vaccine) and protective efficacy assessed by homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were analyzed longitudinally using a Pf protein microarray covering 91% of the proteome, providing first insights into naturally acquired and PfSPZ Vaccine-induced whole parasite antibody profiles in malaria pre-exposed Africans.
Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a potential malaria vaccine candidate, but various polymorphisms of the pfcsp gene among global P. falciparum population become the major barrier to the effectiveness of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and natural selection of pfcsp in Bioko and the comparison among global P. falciparum population.
Developing thermostable vaccines is a challenge for pharmaceutical companies due to the inherent instability of biological molecules in aqueous solution. The problem is even more stringent in regions subjected to high temperatures in which protective cold chain is difficult to maintain due to a lack of infrastructure. Here, a simple, cost-effective solution to increase the thermostability of the malaria candidate vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is described. This vaccine currently needs to be stored between 2 and 8 °C due to the sensitivity of liquid AS01 to higher temperatures. The strategy was to increase thermostability by co-lyophilizing the RTS,S antigen and AS01.
Fifteen years of investment in malaria control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG), dramatically reduced malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, but the impact has plateaued. To progress toward elimination, EG is investing in the development of a malaria vaccine. We assessed the unique public–private partnership that has had such a significant impact on malaria on Bioko Island and now added a major effort on malaria vaccine development.
Immunization with attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites can induce protection against malaria infection, as shown by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites attenuated by radiation in multiple clinical trials. As alternative attenuation strategy with a more homogeneous population of Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ), genetically engineered Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (SPZ) lacking the genes b9 and slarp induced sterile protection against malaria in mice. Consequently, PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine, a Pf identical double knockout (Pf∆b9∆slarp), was generated as a genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccine and tested for safety, immunogenicity, and preliminary efficacy in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers.
RTS,S/AS01, the most advanced vaccine against malaria, is now undergoing pilot implementation in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya where an estimated 360,000 children will be vaccinated each year. In this study we evaluate RTS,S/AS01 alongside bed net use and estimate cost-effectiveness.
RTS,S is the leading malaria vaccine candidate, but only confers partial efficacy against malaria in children. RTS,S is based on the major Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface antigen, circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The induction of anti-CSP antibodies is important for protection, however, it is unclear how these protective antibodies function.
To optimize vaccine implementation visits for young children, it could be efficient to administer the first RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine dose during the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) visit at 6 months of age together with Vitamin A supplementation and the third RTS,S/AS01 dose on the same day as yellow fever (YF), measles and rubella vaccines at 9 months of age. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01 when co-administered with YF and combined measles-rubella (MR) vaccines.
RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine contains the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and may thus serve as a potential hepatitis B vaccine. To evaluate the impact of RTS,S/AS01E when implemented in the Expanded Program of Immunization, infants 8–12 weeks old were randomized to receive either RTS,S/AS01E or a licensed hepatitis B control vaccine (HepB), both co-administered with various combinations of the following childhood vaccines: diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b, trivalent oral poliovirus, pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate and human rotavirus vaccine.
Malaria is an important health and economic burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Conventional economic evaluations typically consider only direct costs to the health care system and government budgets. This paper quantifies the potential impact of malaria vaccination on the wider economy, using Ghana as an example.