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Thailand

NOT Open Access | Field Evaluation of a Spatial Repellent Emanation Vest for Personal Protection Against Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes

October 21, 2020 - 09:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sukkanon C, Tisgratog R, Muenworn V, Bangs MJ, Hii J, Chareonviriyaphap T
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 20:tjaa213

Exophilic vectors are an important contributor to residual malaria transmission. Wearable spatial repellents (SR) can potentially provide personal protection in early evening hours before people retire indoors. An SR prototype for passive delivery of transfluthrin (TFT) for protecting humans against nocturnal mosquitoes in Kanchanaburi, western Thailand, is evaluated. A plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet (676 cm2) treated with 55-mg TFT (TFT-PET), attached to the back of short-sleeve vest worn by human collector, was evaluated under semifield and outdoor conditions.

Species diversity and insecticide resistance within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

October 21, 2020 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sumarnrote A, Overgaard HJ, Corbel V, Thanispong K, Chareonviriyaphap T, Manguin S
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 17;13(1):525

Members of the Anopheles hyrcanus group have been incriminated as important malaria vectors. This study aims to identify the species and explore the insecticide susceptibility profile within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand where increasing numbers of malaria cases were reported in 2014.

Malaria parasites in macaques in Thailand: stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) are new natural hosts for Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi

October 6, 2020 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wirasak Fungfuang, Chanya Udom, Daraka Tongthainan, Khamisah Abdul Kadir and Balbir Singh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:350, 1 October 2020

Certain species of macaques are natural hosts of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, which can both cause malaria in humans, and Plasmodium inui, which can be experimentally transmitted to humans. A significant number of zoonotic malaria cases have been reported in humans throughout Southeast Asia, including Thailand. There have been only two studies undertaken in Thailand to identify malaria parasites in non-human primates in 6 provinces. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of P. knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi in non-human primates from 4 new locations in Thailand.

Utility of ultra-sensitive qPCR to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections under different transmission intensities

September 5, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Ingrid Felger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:319, 3 September 2020

The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.

Genetic analysis of the orthologous crt and mdr1 genes in Plasmodium malariae from Thailand and Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 10:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yupawadee Pimpat, Naowarat Saralamba, Usa Boonyuen, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Francois Nosten, Frank Smithuis, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:315, 31 August 2020

Plasmodium malariae is a widely spread but neglected human malaria parasite, which causes chronic infections. Studies on genetic polymorphisms of anti-malarial drug target genes in P. malariae are limited. Previous reports have shown polymorphisms in the P. malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance and linked to pyrimethamine drug pressure. This study investigated polymorphisms of the P. malariae homologous genes, chloroquine resistant transporter and multidrug resistant 1, associated with chloroquine and mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

The characterization of extracellular vesicles-derived microRNAs in Thai malaria patients

August 11, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nutpakal Ketprasit, Iris Simone Cheng, Fiona Deutsch, Nham Tran, Mallika Imwong, Valery Combes and Duangdao Palasuwan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:285, 10 August 2020

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been broadly studied in malaria for nearly a decade. These vesicles carry various functional biomolecules including RNA families such as microRNAs (miRNA). These EVs-derived microRNAs have numerous roles in host-parasite interactions and are considered promising biomarkers for disease severity. However, this field lacks clinical studies of malaria-infected samples. In this study, EV specific miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of patients from Thailand infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, it is postulated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in these groups of patients and had a role in disease onset through the regulation of specific target genes.

NOT Open Access | Structural diversity, natural selection and intragenic recombination in the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 9 locus in Thailand

July 29, 2020 - 10:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Songsaigath S, Putaporntip C, Kuamsab N, Jongwutiwes S
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jul 22:104467

The merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP9) of malarial parasite forms co-ligand complex with the 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) prior to erythrocyte invasion. Interruption of this process could hamper subsequent asexual erythrocytic development of malaria parasites; therefore, these proteins are considered potential vaccine candidates. In Plasmodium vivax, MSP9 (PvMSP9) contains both conserved and polymorphic repetitive domains that were immunogenic upon natural malaria exposure and conferred protection in vaccination studies in animal models.

Malaria cross-sectional surveys identified asymptomatic infections of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium knowlesi in Surat Thani, a southern province of Thailand

May 19, 2020 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shimizu S, Chotirat S, Nguitragool W, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 May 10:S1201-9712(20)30329-5

Malaria cross-sectional surveys are rarely conducted in very low transmission settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium infection in a near-elimination setting in southern Thailand.

Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum antifolate resistance markers in Thailand between 2008 and 2016

March 9, 2020 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rungniran Sugaram, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Vivek Bhakta Mathema, Nicholas P. J. Day, Prayuth Sudathip, Preecha Prempree, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:107, 4 March 2020

Resistance to anti-malarials is a major threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) anti-malarial treatment was used as a national policy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand from 1973 to 1990. In order to determine whether withdrawal of this antifolate drug has led to restoration of SP sensitivity, the prevalence of genetic markers of SP resistance was assessed in historical Thai samples.

Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand

April 12, 2013 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adisak Bhumiratana, Prapa Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Wuthichai Kaewwaen, Pannamas Maneekan, Suntorn Pimnon
Reference: 
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 11, Issue 1, January–February 2013, Pages 37-50
MalariaWorld

This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. 

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