Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri are regarded as less virulent forms of malaria with a geographic distribution including Southeast Asia, Central and West Africa, and is increasingly reported as an infection in returning travellers. A species of malaria that may have delayed or relapsing presentations similar to Plasmodium vivax, the clinical presentation of P. ovale spp. has been described to have prepatent periods of 2 weeks or slightly longer with reports of relapse following primary infection out to 8–9 months. This presentation may be obscured further in the setting of anti-malarial exposure, with report of delayed primary infection out to 4 years. Presented is a cluster of 4 imported P. ovale spp. cases in returning Peruvian military personnel assigned to United Nations peace-keeping operations in the Central African Republic.
Currently, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but test performance and the factors that lead to failure of Plasmodium ovale detection are not well understood.
Imported P. o. wallikeri infection may be more frequent in males and Caucasians.
Ovale malaria is usually considered a tropical infectious disease associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, severe disease and death have occasionally been reported.
This study further proved that more fragment sizes were found, P. o. wallikeri had six sizes, P. o. curtisi had four sizes.
Conclusive evidence for relapses with P. ovale spp. is rare.
Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri)1.
The Pan primer of the Malaria kit LoopAMP® can detect P. ovale at very low-levels and showed a predictive negative value of 100%.
The four human malaria parasite species all occurred sympatrically at the China–Myanmar border.
Plasmodium ovale is increasing among travellers to West Africa, although sub-species do not differ significantly by parasitologic features such as parasitaemia.