Malaria is a major cause of suffering, disease, and death worldwide and is considered the most important of all human parasitic diseases. Malaria is still endemic in most tropical and sub-tropical areas and globalization has contributed to an increase of imported cases around the world. We report a Plasmodium ovale infection in a traveler with recent return from a long land trip across West Africa.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that are mainly transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The average annual number of malaria cases was less than ten in Taiwan in the last five years.
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a severe and complex multi-factorial condition often with recalcitrant properties. The underlying causes are frequently associated with complications following medical procedures aimed at treating other chronic disorders, such as head and neck radiotherapy for cancer and the use of bisphosphonates and denosumab for osteoporosis.
Eighteen imported ovale malaria cases imported from Myanmar and various African countries have been reported in Yunnan Province, China from 2013 to 2018. All of them have been confirmed by morphological examination and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) based PCR in YNRL. Nevertheless, the subtypes of Plasmodium ovale could not be identified based on 18S rRNA gene test, thus posing challenges on its accurate diagnosis. To help establish a more sensitive and specific method for the detection of P. ovale genes, this study performs sequence analysis on k13-propeller polymorphisms in P. ovale.
Primaquine is an effective anti-hypnozoite drug for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. However, it can trigger erythrocyte hemolysis in people with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In a previous report from South Central Timor (SCT), Indonesia, we described the prevalence of Vanua Lava, Chatham, and Viangchan variants; in this study, other G6PD variants (Kaiping, Coimbra, Gaohe, Canton, and Mahidol) were subsequently analyzed. For clarity, all of these results are described together.
Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale form dormant liver hypnozoites that can reactivate weeks to months following initial infection. Malaria recurrences caused by relapses are an important cause of morbidity and source of transmission. To estimate the proportions of P. vivax malaria recurrences caused by relapses in different geographical locations, we systematically reviewed clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, in which patients were randomized to treatment with or without radical cure primaquine regimens and were followed up for 1 year.
There is an urgent need for an effective vaccine to control and eradicate malaria, one of the most serious global infectious diseases. Plasmodium merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4) has been listed as a blood-stage subunit vaccine candidate for malaria. Infection with Plasmodium ovale species including P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi, is also a source of malaria burden in tropical regions where it is sometimes mixed with other Plasmodium species. However, little is known about P. ovale MSP4.
To assess the occurrence of Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi species in travellers returning to Germany, two real-time PCR protocols for the detection and differentiation of the two P. ovale species were compared. Results of parasite differentiation were correlated with patient data.
Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri are regarded as less virulent forms of malaria with a geographic distribution including Southeast Asia, Central and West Africa, and is increasingly reported as an infection in returning travellers. A species of malaria that may have delayed or relapsing presentations similar to Plasmodium vivax, the clinical presentation of P. ovale spp. has been described to have prepatent periods of 2 weeks or slightly longer with reports of relapse following primary infection out to 8–9 months. This presentation may be obscured further in the setting of anti-malarial exposure, with report of delayed primary infection out to 4 years. Presented is a cluster of 4 imported P. ovale spp. cases in returning Peruvian military personnel assigned to United Nations peace-keeping operations in the Central African Republic.
Currently, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but test performance and the factors that lead to failure of Plasmodium ovale detection are not well understood.