Vector control plays a critical role in the prevention, control and elimination of vector-borne diseases, and interventions of vector control continue to depend largely on the action of chemical insecticides. A global survey was conducted on the management practices of vector control insecticides at country level to identify gaps to inform future strategies on pesticide management, seeking to improve efficacy of interventions and reduce the side-effects of chemicals used on health and the environment.
Implementation and upscale of effective malaria vector control strategies necessitates understanding the multi-factorial aspects of transmission patterns. The primary aims of this study are to determine the vector composition, biting rates, trophic preference, and the overall importance of distinguishing outdoor versus indoor malaria transmission through a study at two communities in rural Mali.
Stakeholder engagement is an essential pillar for the development of innovative public health interventions, including genetic approaches for malaria vector control. Scientific terminologies are mainly lacking in local languages, yet when research activities involve international partnership, the question of technical jargon and its translation is crucial for effective and meaningful communication with stakeholders. Target Malaria, a not-for-profit research consortium developing innovative genetic approaches to malaria vector control, carried out a linguistic exercise in Mali, Burkina Faso and Uganda to establish the appropriate translation of its key terminology to local languages of sites where the teams operate.
Release of gene-drive mutants to suppress Anopheles mosquito reproduction is a promising method of malaria control. However, many scientific, regulatory and ethical questions remain before transgenic mosquitoes can be utilised in the field. At a behavioural level, gene-drive carrying mutants should be at least as sexually attractive as the wildtype populations they compete against, with a key element of Anopheles copulation being acoustic courtship. We analysed sound emissions and acoustic preference in a doublesex mutant previously used to collapse Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) cages.
Vector control, the most efficient tool to reduce mosquito-borne disease transmission, has been compromised by the rise of insecticide resistance. Recent studies suggest the potential of mosquito-associated microbiota as a source for new biocontrol agents or new insecticidal chemotypes. In this study, we identified a strain of Serratia marcescens that has larvicidal activity against Anopheles dirus, an important malaria vector in Southeast Asia.
Botswana has in the recent past 10 years made tremendous progress in the control of malaria and this informed re-orientation from malaria control to malaria elimination by the year 2020. This progress is attributed to improved case management, and scale-up of key vector control interventions; indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, insecticide resistance, outdoor biting and resting, and predisposing human behaviour, such as staying outdoors or sleeping outdoors without the use of protective measures, pose a challenge to the realization of the full impact of LLINs and IRS.
Progress made in the control of malaria vectors globally is largely due to the use of insecticides. However, success in the fight against malaria has slowed down or even stalled due to a host of factors including insecticide resistance. The greatest burden of the disease is felt in Africa, particularly Nigeria. Unfortunately, adequate information on insecticide resistance is lacking in many parts of the country, particularly the South-East Zone. Hence, this study aims to bridge the information gap in the Zone.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets, or LLINs, have significantly reduced malaria morbidity and mortality over the past two decades. The net provides a physical barrier that decreases human-mosquito contact and the impregnated insecticide kills susceptible mosquito vectors upon contact and may repel them. However, the future of LLINs is threatened as resistance to pyrethroids is now widespread, the chemical arsenal for LLINs is very limited, time from discovery of next-generation insecticides to market is long, and persistent transmission is frequently caused by vector populations avoiding contact with LLINs.
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from the late 1800s to date.