The introduction of non‐native species and reductions in native biodiversity have resulted in substantial changes in vector and host communities globally, but the consequences for pathogen transmission are poorly understood. In lowland Hawaiʻi, bird communities are composed of primarily introduced species, with scattered populations of abundant native species. We examined the influence of avian host community composition—specifically the role of native and introduced species, as well as host diversity, on the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus).
Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa, and penguins are considered particularly susceptible to this disease, developing rapid outbreaks with potentially high mortality. We report on an outbreak of avian malaria in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center in Espírito Santo, southeast Brazil. In August and September 2015, a total of 89 Magellanic penguins (87 juveniles and 2 adults) received care at Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Marine Animals.
The potential adaptive nature of this manipulation of mosquito behaviour is discussed in the light of previous studies on other malaria models.
Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects multiple avian species and is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium.
Currently, there are very few studies of avian malaria that investigate relationships among the host-vector-parasite triad concomitantly.
There was no effect of Plasmodium infection on the magnitude of the humoral immune response.
This study provides the first insight into the diversity of haemosporidian parasites of corvids in Germany.
The mosquito-borne disease avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has impacted both captive populations and wild individuals of native New Zealand bird species.
This study supports a differential distribution of Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens between urban and natural areas.
Avian malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., has been linked to the mortality and population-level declines in native birds in some regions.