Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects multiple avian species and is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium.
Currently, there are very few studies of avian malaria that investigate relationships among the host-vector-parasite triad concomitantly.
There was no effect of Plasmodium infection on the magnitude of the humoral immune response.
This study provides the first insight into the diversity of haemosporidian parasites of corvids in Germany.
The mosquito-borne disease avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has impacted both captive populations and wild individuals of native New Zealand bird species.
This study supports a differential distribution of Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens between urban and natural areas.
Avian malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., has been linked to the mortality and population-level declines in native birds in some regions.
Our results suggest that the time window of analysis is critical in evaluating changes in the community of avian malaria lineages infecting mosquitoes.
Overall, salinity, rainfall, and mosquito prevalence and season were the most influential vector-related factors on infection prevalence.
Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host specificity.