The sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. is well established for malaria therapy, but its bioactivity spectrum is much broader. In this review, we give a comprehensive and timely overview of the literature regarding the immunosuppressive activity of artemisinin-type compounds toward inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Numerous receptor-coupled signaling pathways are inhibited by artemisinins, including the receptors for interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), β3-integrin, or RANKL, toll-like receptors and growth factor receptors.
artemisia annua L
This review analyses the most recent scientific research conducted for the purpose of enhancing artemisinin production. It may help to devise better artemisinin enhancement strategies, so that its production becomes cost effective and becomes available to masses. Malaria is a major threat to world population, particularly in South-East Asia and Africa, due to dearth of effective anti-malarial compounds, emergence of quinine resistant malarial strains, and lack of advanced healthcare facilities. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia annua L., is the most potent drug against malaria and used in the formulation of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs).
The present study is aimed to elucidate the effects of concomitant application of irradiated carrageenan (IC) oligomers and salicylic acid (SA) on Artemisia annua L. varieties, viz. "CIM-Arogya" (tolerant) and "Jeevan Raksha" (sensitive) exposed to arsenic (As) stress. Artemisia annua has been known for its sesqui-terpene molecule artemisinin, which is useful in curing malaria. The two compounds, IC and SA, have been established as effective plant growth-promoting molecules for several agricultural and horticultural crops. To test the stress tolerance providing efficacy of IC and SA, the characterization of various physiological and biochemical parameters, growth as well as yield attributes was done in the present experiment.
Artemisia annua L. has been used for millennia in Southeast Asia to treat “fever”. Many infectious microbial and viral diseases have been shown to respond to A. annua and communities around the world use the plant as a medicinal tea, especially for treating malaria.
Dried-leaf Artemisia annua L. (DLA) antimalarial therapy was shown effective in prior animal and human studies, but little is known about its mechanism of action. Here IC50s and ring-stage assays (RSAs) were used to compare extracts of A. annua (DLAe) to artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives in their ability to inhibit and kill Plasmodium falciparum strains 3D7, MRA1252, MRA1240, Cam3.11 and Cam3.11rev in vitro. Strains were sorbitol and Percoll synchronized to enrich for ring-stage parasites that were treated with hot water, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of DLA, artemisinin, CoArtem™, and dihydroartemisinin.
Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. plants has a range of properties that qualifies it to treat several diseases, such as malaria and cancer. However, it has short half-life, which requires making continuous use of it, which has motivated the association of artemisinin (ART) with polymeric nanoparticles to increase its therapeutic efficiency.
As a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has been used for the treatment of various diseases since ancient times, including intermittent fevers due to malaria, bone steaming and heat/fever arising from exhaustion, tuberculosis, lice, wounds, scabies, dysentery et al. With the discovery of artemisinin and its excellent anti-malarial activity, A. annua has received great attention.
Artemisia annua L. is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of malaria, jaundice and intense fever.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy has become the preferred approach for treating malaria and has successfully reduced malaria-related mortality. Currently, the main source of artemisinin is Artemisia annua L., and thus, it is of strategic importance to enhance artemisinin contents in A. annua plants. Phytohormones and illumination are known to be important external environmental factor that can have notable effects on the production of secondary metabolite. The activities of different hormones can be influenced to varying degrees by light, and thus light and hormones may jointly regulate various processes in plants. Here, we performed transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed that ultraviolet B irradiation and phytohormone gibberellins coordinately promoted the accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua.
Recently, a promising technique has come forward in field of radiation-agriculture in which the natural polysaccharides are modified into useful oligomers after depolymerization. Ionizing radiation technology is a simple, pioneering, eco-friendly, and single step degradation process which is used in exploiting the efficiency of the natural polysaccharides as plant growth promoters. Arsenic (As) is a noxious and toxic to growth and development of medicinal plants. Artemisinin is obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L., which is effective in the treatment of malaria.