The global spread of sulfadoxine (Sdx, S) and pyrimethamine (Pyr, P) resistance is attributed to increasing number of mutations in DHPS and DHFR enzymes encoded by malaria parasites. The association between drug resistance mutations and SP efficacy is complex. Here we provide an overview of the geographical spread of SP resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) encoded dhps and dhfr genes.
Malaria remains a major public health issue for pregnant women. Côte d'Ivoire has adopted a series of measures aimed at combatting this plague, and these measures include administering Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment to pregnant women in the second and third terms.This cross-sectional study included a parturient population after informed written consent. We recruited women from the Terre Rouge maternity ward and the labor room of the Regional Medical Center of San-Pedro.
Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a key concern for the global fight against malaria. In Ghana sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy and combined with amodiaquine for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) during the high malaria season. Thus, surveillance of molecular markers of SP resistance is important to guide decision-making for these interventions in Ghana.
In Tanzania, the uptake of optimal doses (≥ 3) of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy has remained below the recommended target of 80%. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the predictors for the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Tanzania.
Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is a proven strategy to protect infants against malaria. Sierra Leone is the first country to implement IPTi nationwide. IPTi implementation was evaluated in Kambia, one of two initial pilot districts, to assess quality and coverage of IPTi services.
Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to antimalarial treatments have hindered malaria disease control. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was used globally as a first-line treatment for malaria after wide-spread resistance to chloroquine emerged and, although replaced by artemisinin combinations, is currently used as intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy and in young children as part of seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence of SP-resistant parasites has been predominantly driven by cumulative build-up of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (pfdhps) genes, but additional amplifications in the folate pathway rate-limiting pfgch1 gene and promoter, have recently been described.
Innovative community strategies to increase intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) coverage is advocated particularly in rural areas, where health infrastructure is weakest and malaria transmission highest. This study involved proof-of-concept implementation research to determine satisfaction with and effectiveness of community-directed distribution of IPTp-SP on uptake among pregnant women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Malaria during pregnancy may result in unfavourable outcomes in both mothers and their foetuses. This study sought to document the current burden and factors associated with malaria and anaemia among pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic visit in an area of Ghana with perennial malaria transmission.
Due to resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria switched to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 in Senegal. Several mutations in the gene coding the kelch13 helix (pfk13-propeller) were identified to be associated with in vitro and in vivo artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.
Previous controlled studies demonstrated seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) reduces malaria morbidity by >80% in children aged 3-59 months. Here, we assessed malaria morbidity after large-scale SMC implementation during a pilot campaign in the health district of Koutiala, Mali.