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Tanzania

Effectiveness of the innovative 1,7-malaria reactive community-based testing and response (1, 7-mRCTR) approach on malaria burden reduction in Southeastern Tanzania

August 17, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yeromin P. Mlacha, Duoquan Wang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:292, 14 August 2020

In 2015, a China-UK-Tanzania tripartite pilot project was implemented in southeastern Tanzania to explore a new model for reducing malaria burden and possibly scaling-out the approach into other malaria-endemic countries. The 1,7-malaria Reactive Community-based Testing and Response (1,7-mRCTR) which is a locally-tailored approach for reporting febrile malaria cases in endemic villages was developed to stop transmission and Plasmodium life-cycle. The (1,7-mRCTR) utilizes existing health facility data and locally trained community health workers to conduct community-level testing and treatment.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

Occurrence of septuple and elevated Pfdhfr-Pfdhps quintuple mutations in a general population threatens the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria prevention during pregnancy in eastern-coast of Tanzania

July 26, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bwire GM, Mikomangwa WP, Kilonzi M
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 22;20(1):530

Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) mutations compromise the effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria, and are likely to impair the efficiency of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp). This study was conducted to determine the level of Pfdhfr-Pfdhps mutations, a decade since SP was limited for IPTp use in pregnant women in Tanzania.

Patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in rural Tanzania call for integrating agricultural and public health practices in managing insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors

July 20, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nancy S. Matowo, Marcel Tanner, Givemore Munhenga, Salum A. Mapua, Marceline Finda, Jürg Utzinger, Vera Ngowi and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:257, 16 July 2020

Unrestricted use of pesticides in agriculture is likely to increase insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, strategies for managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and public health sectors lack integration. This study explored the types and usage of agricultural pesticides, and awareness and management practices among retailers and farmers in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, where Anopheles mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids.

Electrocardiographic safety evaluation of extended artemether-lumefantrine treatment in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

July 15, 2020 - 15:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lwidiko E. Mhamilawa, Sven Wikström, Bruno P. Mmbando, Billy Ngasala and Andreas Mårtensson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:250, 14 July 2020

Extended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria with already existing drug regimens, such as artemether-lumefantrine, might be effective in tackling the emerging ACT resistance. However, given the history of cardiotoxicity among anti-malarial drugs structurally similar to lumefantrine, the potential effect of extended artemether-lumefantrine treatment on the electrocardiographic (ECG) QTc interval is of high concern.

Proteome-wide analysis of a malaria vaccine study reveals personalized humoral immune profiles in Tanzanian adults

July 15, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Camponovo F, Campo JJ, Penny MA, et al.
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Jul 14; 9:e53080

Tanzanian adult male volunteers were immunized by direct venous inoculation with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ Vaccine) and protective efficacy assessed by homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were analyzed longitudinally using a Pf protein microarray covering 91% of the proteome, providing first insights into naturally acquired and PfSPZ Vaccine-induced whole parasite antibody profiles in malaria pre-exposed Africans.

Parasite clearance, cure rate, post-treatment prophylaxis and safety of standard 3-day versus an extended 6-day treatment of artemether–lumefantrine and a single low-dose primaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo district, Tan

June 26, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lwidiko E. Mhamilawa, Billy Ngasala, Ulrika Morris, Eliford Ngaimisi Kitabi, Rory Barnes, Aung Paing Soe, Bruno P. Mmbando, Anders Björkman and Andreas Mårtensson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:216, 23 June 2020

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistant Plasmodium falciparum represents an increasing threat to Africa. Extended ACT regimens from standard 3 to 6 days may represent a means to prevent its development and potential spread in Africa.

Household factors associated with access to insecticide-treated nets and house modification in Bagamoyo and Ulanga districts, Tanzania

June 26, 2020 - 11:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olukayode G. Odufuwa, Amanda Ross, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Omary Juma, Selemani Mmbaga, Daniel Msellemu and Sarah Moore
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:220, 23 June 2020

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and house modifications are proven vector control tools, yet in most regions, full coverage has not been achieved. This study investigates household factors associated with access to ITNs and house modification in Tanzania.

Aquatic habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in rural south-eastern Tanzania

June 26, 2020 - 11:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ismail H. Nambunga, Halfan S. Ngowo, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:219, 23 June 2020

In rural south-eastern Tanzania, Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector, and has been implicated in nearly 90% of all infective bites. Unfortunately, little is known about the natural ecological requirements and survival strategies of this mosquito species.

High malaria parasitemia among outpatient febrile children in low endemic area, East-Central Tanzania in 2013

May 25, 2020 - 11:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chipwaza B, Sumaye RD
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 May 24; 13(1):251

This study investigated the prevalence and distribution patterns of malaria in Kilosa district as part of non-malaria causes of febrile illnesses in children study. We enrolled febrile patients aged 2–13 years presenting at the outpatient department during the rainy and dry seasons, in 2013. For each participant, we tested for malaria parasites and identified parasite species using microscopy. We then calculated parasite density and estimated geometric mean parasite density.

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