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Tanzania

Copula geoadditive modelling of anaemia and malaria in young children in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda

November 10, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Roberts DJ, Zewotir T
Reference: 
J Health Popul Nutr. 2020 Nov 6;39(1):8

Anaemia and malaria are the leading causes of sub-Saharan African childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the complex relationship between anaemia and malaria in young children across the districts or counties of four contiguous sub-Saharan African countries, namely Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, while accounting for the effects of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors. Geospatial maps were constructed to visualise the relationship between the two responses across the districts of the countries.

Community-based surveys for Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in selected regions of mainland Tanzania

November 4, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine Bakari, Sophie Jones, Deus S. Ishengoma, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:391, 4 November 2020

Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are effective and widely used for the detection of wild-type Plasmodium falciparum infections. Although recent studies have reported false negative HRP2 RDT results due to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in different countries, there is a paucity of data on the deletions of these genes in Tanzania.

Malaria vector species composition and entomological indices following indoor residual spraying in regions bordering Lake Victoria, Tanzania

October 31, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charles Kakilla, Alphaxard Manjurano, Stephen M. Magesa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:383, 28 October 2020

Vector control through long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major component of the Tanzania national malaria control strategy. In mainland Tanzania, IRS has been conducted annually around Lake Victoria basin since 2007. Due to pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, use of pyrethroids for IRS was phased out and from 2014 to 2017 pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) was sprayed in regions of Kagera, Geita, Mwanza, and Mara. Entomological surveillance was conducted in 10 sprayed and 4 unsprayed sites to determine the impact of IRS on entomological indices related to malaria transmission risk.

Factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cohort study

October 28, 2020 - 10:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalinjuma AV, Darling AM, Mugusi FM, Abioye AI, Okumu FO, Aboud S, Masanja H, Hamer DH, Hertzmark E, Fawzi WW
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 27;20(1):796

Malaria infection during pregnancy has negative health consequences for both mothers and offspring. Sub-microscopic malaria infection during pregnancy is common in most African countries. We sought to identify factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Not Open Access | Describing the current status of Plasmodium falciparum population structure and drug resistance within mainland Tanzania using molecular inversion probes

October 28, 2020 - 10:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Moser KA, Madebe RA, Bailey JA, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Oct 26

High-throughput Plasmodium genomic data is increasingly useful in assessing prevalence of clinically important mutations and malaria transmission patterns. Understanding parasite diversity is important for identification of specific human or parasite populations that can be targeted by control programs, and to monitor the spread of mutations associated with drug resistance. An up-to-date understanding of regional parasite population dynamics is also critical to monitor the impact of control efforts.

Determinants for choice of home birth over health facility birth among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: an analysis of data from the 2015-16 Tanzania demographic and health survey and malaria indicator survey

September 29, 2020 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moshi FV, Mbotwa CH
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Sep 24;20(1):561

While evidence has shown an association between place of birth and birth outcomes, factors contributing to the choice of home birth have not been adequately investigated in Tanzania while more than 30% of deliveries occur outside of health care facilities, and more than 95% of those deliveries are assisted by non-medical providers who are often unskilled. The use of unskilled birth attendants has been cited as a factor contributing to the high maternal and neonatal mortalities in low-resources countries. This study aimed to identify determinants of choice for home birth over health care facility birth in Tanzania.

Implementation of external quality assessment of microscopy for improved parasite detection and confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in Tanzanian Military health facilities

September 23, 2020 - 08:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalinga AK, Mgata S, Kavishe RA, Mahikwano L, Temu L, Mswanya C, Mwanziva C, Amoo G, Kamau E, Vesely B, Ishengoma DS
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Sep 18;13(1):447

Good quality microscopy is critical for accurate detection and confirmation of malaria parasite infections. Microscopy relies on the skills of technicians to prepare and read slides, high quality reagents, and a good program of internal and external quality control (EQA), which are lacking in most malaria endemic settings. This study was undertaken between January 2016 and December 2018 to pilot an EQA of microscopy for improved diagnosis of malaria and patient care in Tanzanian Military health facilities.

Comparative functional survival and equivalent annual cost of 3 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products in Tanzania: A randomised trial with 3-year follow up

September 22, 2020 - 10:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lorenz LM, Bradley J, Moore SJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 18;17(9):e1003248

Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan.

Emergence of behavioural avoidance strategies of malaria vectors in areas of high LLIN coverage in Tanzania

September 12, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kreppel KS, Viana M, Main BJ, Johnson PCD, Govella NJ, Lee Y, Maliti D, Meza FC, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 3;10(1):14527

Despite significant reductions in malaria transmission across Africa since 2000, progress is stalling. This has been attributed to the development of insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptations in malaria vectors. Whilst insecticide resistance has been widely investigated, there is poorer understanding of the emergence, dynamics and impact of mosquito behavioural adaptations.

Risk factors for malaria infection prevalence and household vector density between mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticidal nets in North-western Tanzania

August 24, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jacklin F. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Natacha Protopopoff, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:297, 20 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely deployed vector control intervention in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent malaria. Recent reports indicate selection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance is widespread in mosquito vectors. This paper explores risk factors associated with malaria infection prevalence and vector density between mass distribution campaigns, changes in net coverage, and loss of protection in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Northwest Tanzania.

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