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Tanzania

Applied mathematical modelling to inform national malaria policies, strategies and operations in Tanzania

March 9, 2020 - 13:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manuela Runge, Fabrizio Molteni, Renata Mandike, Robert W. Snow, Christian Lengeler, Ally Mohamed and Emilie Pothin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:101, 2 March 2020

More than ever, it is crucial to make the best use of existing country data, and analytical tools for developing malaria control strategies as the heterogeneity in malaria risk within countries is increasing, and the available malaria control tools are expanding while large funding gaps exist. Global and local policymakers, as well as funders, increasingly recognize the value of mathematical modelling as a strategic tool to support decision making. This case study article describes the long-term use of modelling in close collaboration with the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in Tanzania, the challenges encountered and lessons learned.

Detection of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance at k13-propeller gene and a near complete return of chloroquine susceptible falciparum malaria in Southeast of Tanzania

March 3, 2020 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bwire GM, Ngasala B, Mikomangwa WP, Kilonzi M, Kamuhabwa AAR
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 26;10(1):3500

In Tanzania, chloroquine was replaced by sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) as a first-line for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Due to high resistance in malaria parasites, SP lasted for only 5 years and by the end of 2006 it was replaced with the current artemisinin combination therapy. We therefore, set a study to determine the current genotypic mutations associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin, partner drugs and chloroquine.

Simulating the council-specific impact of anti-malaria interventions: A tool to support malaria strategic planning in Tanzania

February 24, 2020 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Runge M, Snow RW, Pothin E, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228469

The decision-making process for malaria control and elimination strategies has become more challenging. Interventions need to be targeted at council level to allow for changing malaria epidemiology and an increase in the number of possible interventions. Models of malaria dynamics can support this process by simulating potential impacts of multiple interventions in different settings and determining appropriate packages of interventions for meeting specific expected targets.

NOT Open Access | Risk factors for Burkitt lymphoma in East African children and minors: A case-control study in malaria-endemic regions in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya

February 22, 2020 - 16:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Peprah S, Ogwang MD, Kerchan P, Reynolds SJ, Tenge CN, Were PA, Kuremu RT, Wekesa WN, Sumba PO, Masalu N, Kawira E, Magatti J, Kinyera T, Otim I, Legason ID, Nabalende H, Dhudha H, Ally H, Genga IO, Mumia M, Ayers LW, Pfeiffer RM, Biggar RJ, Bhatia K, Goedert JJ, Mbulaiteye SM
Reference: 
Int J Cancer. 2020 Feb 15;146(4):953-969

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common childhood cancer in sub‐Saharan African countries, however, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and none attempted enrolling cases from multiple countries. We therefore conducted a population‐based case–control study of eBL in children aged 0–15 years old in six regions in Northern Uganda, Northern Tanzania and Western Kenya, enrolling 862 suspected cases and 2,934 population controls (response rates 98.5–100%), and processing ~40,000 vials of samples using standardized protocols.

Usefulness of day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration as a predictor of malaria treatment outcome in under-fives children treated with artemether-lumefantrine in Tanzania

February 14, 2020 - 16:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manase Kilonzi, Omary Minzi, Ritah Mutagonda, Vito Baraka, Philip Sasi, Eleni Aklillu and Appolinary Kamuhabwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:66, 11 February 2020

Day 7 plasma lumefantrine concentration is suggested as a predictor for malaria treatment outcomes and a cut-off of ≥ 200 ng/ml is associated with day 28 cure rate in the general population. However, day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration can be affected by age, the extent of fever, baseline parasitaemia, and bodyweight. Therefore, this study assessed the usefulness of day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration as a predictor of malaria treatment outcome in under-fives children treated with generic or innovator drug-containing artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in Tanzania.

Falciparum malaria from coastal Tanzania and Zanzibar remains highly connected despite effective control efforts on the archipelago

February 3, 2020 - 17:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Andrew P. Morgan, Nicholas F. Brazeau, Jonathan J. Juliano, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:47, 28 January 2020

Tanzania’s Zanzibar archipelago has made significant gains in malaria control over the last decade and is a target for malaria elimination. Despite consistent implementation of effective tools since 2002, elimination has not been achieved. Importation of parasites from outside of the archipelago is thought to be an important cause of malaria’s persistence, but this paradigm has not been studied using modern genetic tools.

Preferred resting surfaces of dominant malaria vectors inside different house types in rural south-eastern Tanzania

January 20, 2020 - 15:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Betwel J. Msugupakulya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa, Halfan S. Ngowo, Japhet M. Kihonda, Najat F. Kahamba, Dickson S. Msaky, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Patrick K. Tungu and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:22, 15 January 2020

Malaria control in Africa relies extensively on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). IRS typically targets mosquitoes resting on walls, and in few cases, roofs and ceilings, using contact insecticides. Unfortunately, little attention is paid to where malaria vectors actually rest indoors, and how such knowledge could be used to improve IRS. This study investigated preferred resting surfaces of two major malaria vectors, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, inside four common house types in rural south-eastern Tanzania.

NOT Open Access | Anopheline Mosquito Species Composition, Kdr Mutation Frequency, and Parasite Infectivity Status in Northern Tanzania

January 14, 2020 - 09:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kweka EJ, Mazigo HD, Lyaruu LJ, Mausa EA, Venter N, Mahande AM, Coetzee M
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz245

The scaling-up of malaria control interventions in northern Tanzania has resulted in a decline in malaria prevalence and vector species composition. Despite this achievement, residual malaria transmission remains a concern in the area. The main aim of this study was to investigate malaria vector species composition, parasite infectivity rates, and the presence of insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in three sites that have experienced a significant decline in malaria in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquitoes were sampled using light traps in houses and hand-aspirators in cowsheds, whereas the standard dipping method was used for sampling mosquito larvae.

Protecting migratory farmers in rural Tanzania using eave ribbons treated with the spatial mosquito repellent, transfluthrin

December 17, 2019 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Johnson K. Swai, Arnold S. Mmbando, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:414, 10 December 2019

Many subsistence farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania regularly relocate to distant farms in river valleys to tend to crops for several weeks or months each year. While there, they live in makeshift semi-open structures, usually far from organized health systems and where insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) do not provide adequate protection. This study evaluated the potential of a recently developed technology, eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent transfluthrin, for protecting migratory rice farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes.

Review: Towards malaria elimination and its implication for vector control, disease management and livelihoods in Tanzania

January 19, 2014 - 17:16 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Leonard E.G. Mboera, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Susan F. Rumisha, Randall A. Kramer
Reference: 
MWJ 2013, 4, 19

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