Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.
A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).
ICON® Maxx (Syngenta) is an insecticide treatment kit of pyrethroid and binding agent for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets. Interim recommendation for use on nets was granted by the World Health Organization (WHO) after successful evaluation in experimental huts following multiple washes. A full WHO recommendation is contingent upon demonstration of continued bio-efficacy after 3 years of use.
Tanzania started implementing single screening and treatment (SST) for all pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visits in 2014, using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treating those who test positive according to the national guidelines. However, there is a paucity of data to show the acceptability of SST to both pregnant women and health care workers (HCWs), taking into consideration the shortage of workers and the added burden of this policy to the health system. This study assessed the perceptions and opinions of health service users and providers to determine the acceptability of SST policy.
The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.
Early initiation of the antenatal clinic is vital as it allows early detection, management, and prevention of problems that may occur during pregnancy time. The analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.
As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability.
Different forms of mosquito modifications are being considered as potential high-impact and low-cost tools for future malaria control in Africa. Although still under evaluation, the eventual success of these technologies will require high-level public acceptance. Understanding prevailing community perceptions of mosquito modification is, therefore, crucial for effective design and implementation of these interventions. This study investigated community perceptions regarding genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMMs) and their potential for malaria control in Tanzanian villages where no research or campaign for such technologies has yet been undertaken.
Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.
Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.