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Tanzania

Synergism between nonane and emanations from soil as cues in oviposition‐site selection of natural populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

January 21, 2021 - 15:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Victor S. Mwingira, Leonard E. G. Mboera and Willem Takken
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:52, 21 January 2021

Olfactory cues have been shown to have an important role in guiding gravid mosquito females to selected sites for egg laying. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of emanations from soil from a breeding site and the putative oviposition pheromone nonane on oviposition-site selection of natural populations of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) and Culex quinquefasciatus.

NOT Open Access | Using pastoralist community knowledge to locate and treat dry-season mosquito breeding habitats with pyriproxyfen to control Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.l. in rural Tanzania

January 12, 2021 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lupenza ET, Kihonda J, Limwagu AJ, Ngowo HS, Sumaye RD, Lwetoijera DW
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Jan 6

Fundamentally, larviciding with pyriproxyfen (PPF) has potential to complement Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS) in settings where resistance to pyrethroids and residual malaria transmission exist. In this study, we evaluated the field effectiveness of larviciding using PPF to reduce dry season productivity of mosquito breeding habitats that were located by pastoralists within the study area.

Single blinded semi-field evaluation of MAÏA® topical repellent ointment compared to unformulated 20% DEET against Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Aedes aegypti in Tanzania

January 9, 2021 - 12:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Mbuba, Olukayode G. Odufuwa, Frank C. Tenywa, Rose Philipo, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Johnson K. Swai, Jason D. Moore and Sarah J. Moore
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:12, 6 January 2021

N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) topical mosquito repellents are effective personal protection tools. However, DEET-based repellents tend to have low consumer acceptability because they are cosmetically unappealing. More attractive formulations are needed to encourage regular user compliance. This study evaluated the protective efficacy and protection duration of a new topical repellent ointment containing 15% DEET, MAÏA® compared to 20% DEET in ethanol using malaria and dengue mosquito vectors in Bagamoyo Tanzania.

NOT Open Access | Increase of Dose Associated With Decrease in Protection Against Controlled Human Malaria Infection by PfSPZ Vaccine in Tanzanian Adults

January 5, 2021 - 15:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jongo SA, Church LWP, Hoffman SL, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 31;71(11):2849-2857

A vaccine would be an ideal tool for reducing malaria’s impact. PfSPZ Vaccine (radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum [Pf] sporozoites [SPZ]) has been well tolerated and safe in >1526 malaria-naive and experienced 6-month to 65-year-olds in the United States, Europe, and Africa. When vaccine efficacy (VE) of 5 doses of 2.7 × 105 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Vaccine was assessed in adults against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in the United States and Tanzania and intense field transmission of heterogeneous Pf in Mali, Tanzanians had the lowest VE (20%).

Is the source of domestic water associated with the risk of malaria infection? Spatial variability and a mixed-effects multilevel analysis

December 29, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shayo FK, Nakamura K, Saber AS, Seino K
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 23:S1201-9712(20)32585-6

There is a dearth of information about the influence of sources of domestic water and malaria infection in endemic regions such as Tanzania. This study examined geospatial variability and association between the source of domestic water and the malaria prevalence in Tanzania.

Evaluation of a single screen and treat strategy to detect asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women from selected health facilities in Lindi region, Tanzania

December 2, 2020 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chonge Kitojo, Frank Chacky, Emmanuel S. Kigadye, Joseph P. Mugasa, Abdallah Lusasi, Ally Mohamed, Patrick Walker, Erik J. Reaves, Julie R. Gutman & Deus S. Ishengoma
Reference: 
Malar J 19, 438 (2020)

In areas of high transmission, malaria in pregnancy (MiP) primarily causes asymptomatic infections; these infections nonetheless increase the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. In 2014, Tanzania initiated a single screening and treatment (SST) strategy for all pregnant women at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for surveillance purposes. However, there is paucity of data on the effectiveness of SST in the prevention of MiP. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of asymptomatic infections among pregnant women detected by SST, which would have been missed in the absence of the policy.

Evaluation of a single screen and treat strategy to detect asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women from selected health facilities in Lindi region, Tanzania

December 2, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chonge Kitojo, Frank Chacky, Emmanuel S. Kigadye, Joseph P. Mugasa, Abdallah Lusasi, Ally Mohamed, Patrick Walker, Erik J. Reaves, Julie R. Gutman and Deus S. Ishengoma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:438, 30 November 2020

In areas of high transmission, malaria in pregnancy (MiP) primarily causes asymptomatic infections; these infections nonetheless increase the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. In 2014, Tanzania initiated a single screening and treatment (SST) strategy for all pregnant women at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for surveillance purposes. However, there is paucity of data on the effectiveness of SST in the prevention of MiP. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of asymptomatic infections among pregnant women detected by SST, which would have been missed in the absence of the policy.

Reduced human-biting preferences of the African malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in an urban context: controlled, competitive host-preference experiments in Tanzania

November 24, 2020 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Athuman Muhili, Dennis J. Massue, Marcel Tanner, Silas Majambere, Gerry F. Killen and Nicodem J. Govella
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:418, 20 November 2020

Host preference is a critical determinant of human exposure to vector-borne infections and the impact of vector control interventions. Widespread use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) across sub-Saharan Africa, which protect humans against mosquitoes, may select for altered host preference traits of malaria vectors over the long term. Here, the host preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) were experimentally assessed in the field, using direct host-preference assays in two distinct ecological settings in Tanzania.

A novel deep learning-based point-of-care diagnostic method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum with fluorescence digital microscopy

November 18, 2020 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Holmström O, Stenman S, Suutala A, Moilanen H, Kücükel H, Ngasala B, Mårtensson A, Mhamilawa L, Aydin-Schmidt B, Lundin M, Diwan V, Linder N, Lundin J
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 17;15(11):e0242355

Malaria remains a major global health problem with a need for improved field-usable diagnostic tests. We have developed a portable, low-cost digital microscope scanner, capable of both brightfield and fluorescence imaging. Here, we used the instrument to digitize blood smears, and applied deep learning (DL) algorithms to detect Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

Comparative assessment of insecticide resistance phenotypes in two major malaria vectors, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in south-eastern Tanzania

November 14, 2020 - 16:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Polius G. Pinda, Claudia Eichenberger, Halfan S. Ngowo, Dickson S. Msaky, Said Abbasi, Japhet Kihonda, Hamis Bwanaly and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:408, 11 November 2020

Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have greatly reduced malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, but are threatened by insecticide resistance. In south-eastern Tanzania, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus are now implicated in > 80% of malaria infections, even in villages where the species occurs at lower densities than the other vector, Anopheles arabiensis. This study compared the insecticide resistance phenotypes between the two malaria vectors in an area where pyrethroid-LLINs are widely used.

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