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Tanzania

Implementation of external quality assessment of microscopy for improved parasite detection and confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in Tanzanian Military health facilities

September 23, 2020 - 08:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalinga AK, Mgata S, Kavishe RA, Mahikwano L, Temu L, Mswanya C, Mwanziva C, Amoo G, Kamau E, Vesely B, Ishengoma DS
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Sep 18;13(1):447

Good quality microscopy is critical for accurate detection and confirmation of malaria parasite infections. Microscopy relies on the skills of technicians to prepare and read slides, high quality reagents, and a good program of internal and external quality control (EQA), which are lacking in most malaria endemic settings. This study was undertaken between January 2016 and December 2018 to pilot an EQA of microscopy for improved diagnosis of malaria and patient care in Tanzanian Military health facilities.

Comparative functional survival and equivalent annual cost of 3 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products in Tanzania: A randomised trial with 3-year follow up

September 22, 2020 - 10:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lorenz LM, Bradley J, Moore SJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 18;17(9):e1003248

Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan.

Emergence of behavioural avoidance strategies of malaria vectors in areas of high LLIN coverage in Tanzania

September 12, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kreppel KS, Viana M, Main BJ, Johnson PCD, Govella NJ, Lee Y, Maliti D, Meza FC, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 3;10(1):14527

Despite significant reductions in malaria transmission across Africa since 2000, progress is stalling. This has been attributed to the development of insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptations in malaria vectors. Whilst insecticide resistance has been widely investigated, there is poorer understanding of the emergence, dynamics and impact of mosquito behavioural adaptations.

Risk factors for malaria infection prevalence and household vector density between mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticidal nets in North-western Tanzania

August 24, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jacklin F. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Natacha Protopopoff, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:297, 20 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely deployed vector control intervention in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent malaria. Recent reports indicate selection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance is widespread in mosquito vectors. This paper explores risk factors associated with malaria infection prevalence and vector density between mass distribution campaigns, changes in net coverage, and loss of protection in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Northwest Tanzania.

Effectiveness of the innovative 1,7-malaria reactive community-based testing and response (1, 7-mRCTR) approach on malaria burden reduction in Southeastern Tanzania

August 17, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yeromin P. Mlacha, Duoquan Wang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:292, 14 August 2020

In 2015, a China-UK-Tanzania tripartite pilot project was implemented in southeastern Tanzania to explore a new model for reducing malaria burden and possibly scaling-out the approach into other malaria-endemic countries. The 1,7-malaria Reactive Community-based Testing and Response (1,7-mRCTR) which is a locally-tailored approach for reporting febrile malaria cases in endemic villages was developed to stop transmission and Plasmodium life-cycle. The (1,7-mRCTR) utilizes existing health facility data and locally trained community health workers to conduct community-level testing and treatment.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

Occurrence of septuple and elevated Pfdhfr-Pfdhps quintuple mutations in a general population threatens the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria prevention during pregnancy in eastern-coast of Tanzania

July 26, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bwire GM, Mikomangwa WP, Kilonzi M
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 22;20(1):530

Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) mutations compromise the effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria, and are likely to impair the efficiency of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp). This study was conducted to determine the level of Pfdhfr-Pfdhps mutations, a decade since SP was limited for IPTp use in pregnant women in Tanzania.

Patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in rural Tanzania call for integrating agricultural and public health practices in managing insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors

July 20, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nancy S. Matowo, Marcel Tanner, Givemore Munhenga, Salum A. Mapua, Marceline Finda, Jürg Utzinger, Vera Ngowi and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:257, 16 July 2020

Unrestricted use of pesticides in agriculture is likely to increase insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, strategies for managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and public health sectors lack integration. This study explored the types and usage of agricultural pesticides, and awareness and management practices among retailers and farmers in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, where Anopheles mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids.

Electrocardiographic safety evaluation of extended artemether-lumefantrine treatment in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

July 15, 2020 - 15:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lwidiko E. Mhamilawa, Sven Wikström, Bruno P. Mmbando, Billy Ngasala and Andreas Mårtensson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:250, 14 July 2020

Extended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria with already existing drug regimens, such as artemether-lumefantrine, might be effective in tackling the emerging ACT resistance. However, given the history of cardiotoxicity among anti-malarial drugs structurally similar to lumefantrine, the potential effect of extended artemether-lumefantrine treatment on the electrocardiographic (ECG) QTc interval is of high concern.

Proteome-wide analysis of a malaria vaccine study reveals personalized humoral immune profiles in Tanzanian adults

July 15, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Camponovo F, Campo JJ, Penny MA, et al.
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Jul 14; 9:e53080

Tanzanian adult male volunteers were immunized by direct venous inoculation with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ Vaccine) and protective efficacy assessed by homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were analyzed longitudinally using a Pf protein microarray covering 91% of the proteome, providing first insights into naturally acquired and PfSPZ Vaccine-induced whole parasite antibody profiles in malaria pre-exposed Africans.

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