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Tanzania

Efficacy of interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide mixture net treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin against Anopheles funestus: experimental hut trials in north-eastern Tanzania

April 14, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Elisante Michael, Wema Sudi, William W. Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:180, 9 April 2021

The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.

Prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: An analysis of data from the 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic Health Survey and Malaria Indicators Survey

April 7, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moshi FV
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Apr 6;16(4):e0249337

Early initiation of the antenatal clinic is vital as it allows early detection, management, and prevention of problems that may occur during pregnancy time. The analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.

The consequences of declining population access to insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) on net use patterns and physical degradation of nets after 22 months of ownership

March 30, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zawadi M. Mboma, Charles Festo, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:171, 29 March 2021

As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability.

Hybrid mosquitoes? Evidence from rural Tanzania on how local communities conceptualize and respond to modified mosquitoes as a tool for malaria control

March 10, 2021 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marceline F. Finda, Fredros O. Okumu, Elihaika Minja, Rukiyah Njalambaha, Winfrida Mponzi, Brian B. Tarimo, Prosper Chaki, Javier Lezaun, Ann H. Kelly and Nicola Christofides
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:134, 6 March 2021

Different forms of mosquito modifications are being considered as potential high-impact and low-cost tools for future malaria control in Africa. Although still under evaluation, the eventual success of these technologies will require high-level public acceptance. Understanding prevailing community perceptions of mosquito modification is, therefore, crucial for effective design and implementation of these interventions. This study investigated community perceptions regarding genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMMs) and their potential for malaria control in Tanzanian villages where no research or campaign for such technologies has yet been undertaken.

Efficacy of indoor residual spraying with broflanilide (TENEBENAL), a novel meta-diamide insecticide, against pyrethroid-resistant anopheline vectors in northern Tanzania: An experimental hut trial

March 9, 2021 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Snetselaar J, Rowland MW, Manunda BJ, Kisengwa EM, Small GJ, Malone DJ, Mosha FW, Kirby MJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 3;16(3):e0248026

Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.

Cerebrospinal fluid pterins, pterin-dependent neurotransmitters, and mortality in pediatric cerebral malaria

February 23, 2021 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rubach MP, Mukemba JP, Granger DL, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 22:jiab086

Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.

Direct Comparison of Standard and Ultrasensitive PCR for the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum from Dried Blood Spots in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

February 9, 2021 - 10:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Markwalter CF, Ngasala B, Mowatt T, Basham C, Park Z, Loya M, Muller M, Plowe C, Nyunt M, Lin JT
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Feb 8:tpmd201233

Ultrasensitive PCR used in low-transmission malaria-endemic settings has revealed a much higher burden of asymptomatic infections than that detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or standard PCR, but there is limited evidence as to whether this is the case in higher transmission settings.

Predictors for the uptake of optimal doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: further analysis of the data of the 2015–2016 Tanzania demographic and health survey and malaria indicat

February 8, 2021 - 10:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vivian Mushi, Christopher H. Mbotwa, Abdallah Zacharia, Theresia Ambrose and Fabiola V. Moshi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:75, 6 February 2021

In Tanzania, the uptake of optimal doses (≥ 3) of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy has remained below the recommended target of 80%. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the predictors for the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Tanzania.

Fine-scale distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside human dwellings in three low-altitude Tanzanian villages

February 3, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mmbando AS, Kaindoa EW, Ngowo HS, Swai JK, Matowo NS, Kilalangongono M, Lingamba GP, Mgando JP, Namango IH, Okumu FO, Nelli L
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 28;16(1):e0245750

While malaria transmission in Africa still happens primarily inside houses, there is a substantial proportion of Anopheles mosquitoes that bite or rest outdoors. This situation may compromise the performance of indoor insecticidal interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study investigated the distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside dwellings in three low-altitude villages in south-eastern Tanzania. The likelihood of malaria infections outdoors was also assessed.

Performance evaluation of the highly sensitive histidine‐rich protein 2 rapid test for plasmodium falciparum malaria in North-West Tanzania

January 27, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alphaxard Manjurano, Justin J. Omolo, Eric Lyimo, Donald Miyaye, Coleman Kishamawe, Lucas E. Matemba, Julius J. Massaga, John Changalucha and Paul E. Kazyoba
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:58, 22 January 2021

Precise detection of Plasmodium infections in community surveys is essential for effective malaria control. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the major techniques used to identify malaria infections in the field-based surveys. Although microscopy is still considered as the gold standard, RDTs are increasingly becoming versatile due to their rapid and adequate performance characteristics.

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