The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.
Early initiation of the antenatal clinic is vital as it allows early detection, management, and prevention of problems that may occur during pregnancy time. The analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.
As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability.
Different forms of mosquito modifications are being considered as potential high-impact and low-cost tools for future malaria control in Africa. Although still under evaluation, the eventual success of these technologies will require high-level public acceptance. Understanding prevailing community perceptions of mosquito modification is, therefore, crucial for effective design and implementation of these interventions. This study investigated community perceptions regarding genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMMs) and their potential for malaria control in Tanzanian villages where no research or campaign for such technologies has yet been undertaken.
Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.
Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.
Ultrasensitive PCR used in low-transmission malaria-endemic settings has revealed a much higher burden of asymptomatic infections than that detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or standard PCR, but there is limited evidence as to whether this is the case in higher transmission settings.
In Tanzania, the uptake of optimal doses (≥ 3) of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy has remained below the recommended target of 80%. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the predictors for the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Tanzania.
While malaria transmission in Africa still happens primarily inside houses, there is a substantial proportion of Anopheles mosquitoes that bite or rest outdoors. This situation may compromise the performance of indoor insecticidal interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study investigated the distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside dwellings in three low-altitude villages in south-eastern Tanzania. The likelihood of malaria infections outdoors was also assessed.
Precise detection of Plasmodium infections in community surveys is essential for effective malaria control. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the major techniques used to identify malaria infections in the field-based surveys. Although microscopy is still considered as the gold standard, RDTs are increasingly becoming versatile due to their rapid and adequate performance characteristics.