Malaria is a global public health concern and its dynamic transmission is still a complex process. Malaria transmission largely depends on various factors, including demography, geography, vector dynamics, parasite reservoir, and climate. The dynamic behaviour of malaria transmission has been explained using various statistical and mathematical methods. Of them, wavelet analysis is a powerful mathematical technique used in analysing rapidly changing time-series to understand disease processes in a more holistic way.
The relative contribution of imported vs.locally acquired infections to urban malaria burden remains largely unexplored in Latin America, the most urbanisedregion in the developing world. Here we use a simple molecular epidemiology framework to examine the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax in Mâncio Lima, the Amazonian municipality with the highest malaria incidence rate in Brazil.
According to the World Health Organization reports, billions of people around the world are at risk for malaria disease and it is important to consider the preventive strategies for protecting the people that are living in high risk areas. One of the main reasons of disease survival is diversity of vectors and parasites in different malaria regions that have their specific features, behaviour and biology. Therefore, specific regional strategies are necessary for successful control of malaria. One of the tools that needs to be developed for elimination and prevention of reintroduction of malaria is a vaccine that interrupt malaria transmission (VIMTs). VIMT is a broad concept that should be adjusted to the biological characteristics of the disease in each region. One type of VIMT is a vector-based vaccine that affects the sexual stage of Plasmodium life cycle. According to recent studies, the aminopeptidase N-1 of Anopheles gambiae (AgAPN-1) is as a potent vector-based VIMT with considerable inhibition activity against the sexual stage of Plasmodium parasite.
The contribution of Anopheles funestus to malaria transmission in the urban environment is still not well documented. The present study assesses the implication of An. funestus in malaria transmission in two districts, Nsam and Mendong, in the city of Yaoundé. Adult mosquitoes were collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (CDC-LT) and human landing catches from April 2017 to March 2018 and were identified morphologically to the species level. Those belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the Anopheles funestus group were further processed by PCR to identify members of each complex/group.
Improving house structure is known to limit contact between humans and mosquitoes and reduce malaria transmission risk. In the present study, the influence of house characteristics on mosquito distribution and malaria transmission risk was assessed in the city of Yaoundé.
The current study shows the results of three years of IRS entomological monitoring (2016, before intervention; 2017 and 2018, after intervention) performed in Alibori and Donga, northern Benin.
Rhoptries are the large, paired, secretory organelles located at the apical tip of the malaria merozoite that are considered important for parasite invasion processes. Plasmodium vivax rhoptry proteins have been shown to induce humoral immunity during natural infections. Therefore, these proteins may be potential novel vaccine candidates. However, there is a lack of data on the duration of antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses. Here, the longitudinal analysis of antibody and MBC responses to the P. vivax rhoptry proteins PvRALP1-Ecto and PvRhopH2 were monitored and analysed in individuals to determine their persistence.
This implies that a stable endemic equilibrium may also exists for R0<1. When R0>1, the endemic persistence of the disease has been proved to hold also for the extended model. This last result is obtained by means of the geometric approach to global stability.