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LLINs

Anopheline and human drivers of malaria risk in northern coastal, Ecuador: a pilot study

October 6, 2020 - 12:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
James A. Martin, Allison L. Hendershot, Neil F. Lobo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:354, 2 October 2020

Understanding local anopheline vector species and their bionomic traits, as well as related human factors, can help combat gaps in protection.

Vector control for malaria elimination in Botswana: progress, gaps and opportunities

August 27, 2020 - 08:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tefo Kesaobaka Kgoroebutswe, Ntebaleng Makate, Ulrike Fillinger, Mandla Mpho, Godira Segoea, Peter Onyango Sangoro, Clifford Maina Mutero, Emmanuel Chanda, Davies Ntebela, Mpho Mogopa, Tjantilili Mosweunyane and Theresia Estomih Nkya
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:301, 26 August 2020

Botswana has in the recent past 10 years made tremendous progress in the control of malaria and this informed re-orientation from malaria control to malaria elimination by the year 2020. This progress is attributed to improved case management, and scale-up of key vector control interventions; indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, insecticide resistance, outdoor biting and resting, and predisposing human behaviour, such as staying outdoors or sleeping outdoors without the use of protective measures, pose a challenge to the realization of the full impact of LLINs and IRS.

Risk factors for malaria infection prevalence and household vector density between mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticidal nets in North-western Tanzania

August 24, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jacklin F. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Natacha Protopopoff, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:297, 20 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely deployed vector control intervention in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent malaria. Recent reports indicate selection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance is widespread in mosquito vectors. This paper explores risk factors associated with malaria infection prevalence and vector density between mass distribution campaigns, changes in net coverage, and loss of protection in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Northwest Tanzania.

A multiphase program for malaria elimination in southern Mozambique (the Magude project): A before-after study

August 18, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Galatas B, Saúte F, Martí-Soler H, Aide P, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 14;17(8):e1003227

Malaria eradication remains the long-term vision of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, whether malaria elimination is feasible in areas of stable transmission in sub-Saharan Africa with currently available tools remains a subject of debate. This study aimed to evaluate a multiphased malaria elimination project to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in a rural district of southern Mozambique.

Combining next-generation indoor residual spraying and drug-based malaria control strategies: observational evidence of a combined effect in Mali

August 17, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:293, 15 August 2020

Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3–59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.

The potential public health consequences of COVID-19 on malaria in Africa

August 10, 2020 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sherrard-Smith E, Hogan AB, Churcher TS, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Med. 2020 Aug 7

The burden of malaria is heavily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where cases and deaths associated with COVID-19 are rising1. In response, countries are implementing societal measures aimed at curtailing transmission of SARS-CoV-22,3. Despite these measures, the COVID-19 epidemic could still result in millions of deaths as local health facilities become overwhelmed4.

Anopheles bionomics, insecticide resistance and malaria transmission in southwest Burkina Faso: A pre-intervention study

August 5, 2020 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soma DD, Zogo BM, Somé A, Tchiekoi BN, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(8): e0236920

Twenty-seven villages were selected in southwest Burkina Faso to implement new vector control strategies in addition to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). We conducted entomological surveys in the villages during the dry cold season (January 2017), dry hot season (March 2017) and rainy season (June 2017) to describe malaria vectors bionomics, insecticide resistance and transmission prior to this trial.

Adaptive interventions for optimizing malaria control: an implementation study protocol for a block-cluster randomized, sequential multiple assignment trial

July 21, 2020 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou G, Lee MC, Atieli HE, Githure JI, Githeko AK, Kazura JW, Yan G
Reference: 
Trials. 2020 Jul 20;21(1):665

In the past two decades, the massive scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has led to significant reductions in malaria mortality and morbidity. Nonetheless, the malaria burden remains high, and a dozen countries in Africa show a trend of increasing malaria incidence over the past several years. This underscores the need to improve the effectiveness of interventions by optimizing first-line intervention tools and integrating newly approved products into control programs. Because transmission settings and vector ecologies vary from place to place, malaria interventions should be adapted and readapted over time in response to evolving malaria risks. An adaptive approach based on local malaria epidemiology and vector ecology may lead to significant reductions in malaria incidence and transmission risk.

Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea

July 21, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vinit R, Timinao L, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 20;11(1):3646

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly.

NOT Open Access | Insecticide resistance and malaria control: A genetics-epidemiology modeling approach

July 13, 2020 - 15:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mohammed-Awel J, Iboi EA, Gumel AB
Reference: 
Math Biosci. 2020 Jul;325:108368

Malaria, a deadly infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, remains a major public health menace affecting at least half the human race. Although the large-scale usage of insecticides-based control measures, notably long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have led to a dramatic reduction of the burden of this global scourge between the period 2000 to 2015, the fact that the malaria vector (adult female Anopheles mosquito) has become resistant to all currently-available insecticides potentially makes the current laudable global effort to eradicate malaria by 2040 more challenging.

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