Mitigating the threat of insecticide resistance in African malaria vector populations requires comprehensive information about where resistance occurs, to what degree, and how this has changed over time. Estimating these trends is complicated by the sparse, heterogeneous distribution of observations of resistance phenotypes in field populations.
Effective targeting and evaluation of interventions that protect against adult malaria vectors requires an understanding of how gaps in personal protection arise. An improved understanding of human and mosquito behaviour, and how they overlap in time and space, is critical to estimating the impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and determining when and where supplemental personal protection tools are needed. Methods for weighting estimates of human exposure to biting Anopheles mosquitoes according to where people spend their time were first developed over half a century ago. However, crude indoor and outdoor biting rates are still commonly interpreted as indicative of human-vector contact patterns without any adjustment for human behaviour or the personal protection effects of ITNs.
Although malaria is endemic to the Amazon region, little is known about the susceptibility of potential parasite vectors in Brazil. Assessing the vector susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes will increase our understanding of parasite–vector interactions and aid the design of vector control strategies.
Zooprophylaxis is a technique in which blood-seeking vectors are diverted to non-host animals in order to lower blood-feeding rates on human hosts. The success of this technique depends on the host preference of the vector being targeted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of l-lactic acid (Abate) to divert malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae from feeding on human host.
Malaria control in Africa relies extensively on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). IRS typically targets mosquitoes resting on walls, and in few cases, roofs and ceilings, using contact insecticides. Unfortunately, little attention is paid to where malaria vectors actually rest indoors, and how such knowledge could be used to improve IRS. This study investigated preferred resting surfaces of two major malaria vectors, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, inside four common house types in rural south-eastern Tanzania.
Deltamethrin 62.5 polymer-enhanced suspension concentrate (SC-PE) is one of the World Health Organization-approved insecticides for indoor residual spraying and was recommended to evaluate its residual activity for determination of appropriate spray cycles in different eco-epidemiologic settings. In the current study, efficacy of deltamethrin 62.5 SC-PE was evaluated against vectors of malaria and its impact on malaria incidence in a Plasmodium falciparum hyper-endemic area in Koraput district, Odisha State, India.
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play a role in adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Inversion polymorphisms are implicated in the very high ecological flexibility of the three main malaria vector species of the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex, facilitating the exploitation of anthropogenic environmental modifications and promoting a strong association with humans. In addition to extending the species’ spatial and temporal distribution, inversions are associated with epidemiologically relevant mosquito behavior and physiology, underscoring their medical importance. We here present novel PCR-RFLP based assays strongly predictive of genotype for the cosmopolitan 2Rb inversion in An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, a development which overcomes the numerous constraints inherent to traditional cytological karyotyping.
India has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The national framework for malaria elimination released by the Government of India plans to achieve this goal through strategic planning in a phased manner. Since vector control is a major component of disease management and vector elimination, it requires a thorough understanding of the biology and bionomics of malaria vectors exhibiting definite distribution patterns in diverse ecosystems in the country.
Measuring human exposure to mosquito bites is a crucial component of vector-borne disease surveillance. For malaria vectors, the human landing catch (HLC) remains the gold standard for direct estimation of exposure. This method, however, is controversial since participants risk exposure to potentially infected mosquito bites. Recently an exposure-free mosquito electrocuting trap (MET) was developed to provide a safer alternative to the HLC. Early prototypes of the MET performed well in Tanzania but have yet to be tested in West Africa, where malaria vector species composition, ecology and behaviour are different. The performance of the MET relative to HLC for characterizing mosquito vector population dynamics and biting behaviour in Burkina Faso was evaluated.
Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site insecticide resistance mechanism that is associated with DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Even though insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT have been reported in Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles benarrochi sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. malaria vectors in Latin America, there is a knowledge gap on the role that kdr resistance mechanisms play in this resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the role that kdr mechanisms play in pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main malaria vectors in Colombia, in addition to previously reported metabolic resistance mechanisms, such as mixed function oxidases (MFO) and nonspecific esterases (NSE) enzyme families.