The world's scientific and social network for malaria professionals
Subscribe to free Newsletter | 10907 malaria professionals are enjoying the free benefits of MalariaWorld today

Primaquine

Primaquine alternative dosing schedules for preventing malaria relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax

August 22, 2020 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Gemma Villanueva, Hanna Bergman, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD012656

Plasmodium vivax liver stages (hypnozoites) may cause relapses, prolonging morbidity, and impeding malaria control and elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three schedules for primaquine: 0.25 mg/kg/day (standard), or 0.5 mg/kg/day (high standard) for 14 days, or 0.75 mg/kg once weekly for eight weeks, all of which can be difficult to complete. Since primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, clinicians may be reluctant to prescribe primaquine without G6PD testing, and recommendations when G6PD status is unknown must be based on an assessment of the risks and benefits of prescribing primaquine. Alternative safe and efficacious regimens are needed.

G6PD deficiency in malaria endemic areas of Nepal

August 17, 2020 - 13:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Baburam Marasini, Bibek Kumar Lal, Bhim Prasad Acharya, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:287, 12 August 2020

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is currently a threat to malaria elimination due to risk of primaquine-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends G6PD screening before providing primaquine as a radical treatment against vivax malaria. However, evidence regarding the prevalence and causing mutations of G6PD deficiency in Nepal is scarce.

Prevalence of CYP2D6 Genotypes and Predicted Phenotypes in a Cohort of Cambodians at High Risk for Infections with Plasmodium vivax

August 12, 2020 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Spring MD, Lon C, Sok S, Sea D, Wojnarski M, Chann S, Kuntawunginn W, Kheang Heng T, Nou S, Arsanok M, Sriwichai S, Vanachayangkul P, Lin JT, Manning JE, Jongsakul K, Pichyangkul S, Satharath P, Smith PL, Dysoley L, Saunders DL, Waters NC
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug;103(2):756-759.

Clinical failure of primaquine (PQ) has been demonstrated in people with CYP450 2D6 genetic polymorphisms that result in reduced or no enzyme activity. The distribution of CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted phenotypes in the Cambodian population is not well described. Surveys in other Asian countries have shown an approximate 50% prevalence of the reduced activity CYP2D6 allele *10, which could translate into increased risk of PQ radical cure failure and repeated relapses, making interruption of transmission and malaria elimination difficult to achieve.

NOT Open Access | Doses of primaquine administered to children with Plasmodium vivax according to an age-based dose regimen

July 27, 2020 - 12:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vieira MVDF, Matos Lopes TR, Mello AGNC, de Sena LWP, Commons RJ, Vieira JLF.
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2020 Jul 24:1-5

Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma concentrations of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine.

COVID-19: Possible Cause of Induction of Relapse of Plasmodium vivax Infection

July 7, 2020 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kishore R, Dhakad S, Arif N, Dar L, Mirdha BR, Aggarwal R, Kabra SK
Reference: 
Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 3:1-2

To the Editor: In ongoing pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19), clinicians are observing atypical manifestations of the disease.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants in Malaria-Endemic Areas of South Central Timor, Eastern Indonesia

July 1, 2020 - 16:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sulistyaningrum N, Arlinda D, Chaijaroenkul W, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 29

Primaquine is an effective anti-hypnozoite drug for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. However, it can trigger erythrocyte hemolysis in people with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In a previous report from South Central Timor (SCT), Indonesia, we described the prevalence of Vanua Lava, Chatham, and Viangchan variants; in this study, other G6PD variants (Kaiping, Coimbra, Gaohe, Canton, and Mahidol) were subsequently analyzed. For clarity, all of these results are described together.

Parasite clearance, cure rate, post-treatment prophylaxis and safety of standard 3-day versus an extended 6-day treatment of artemether–lumefantrine and a single low-dose primaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bagamoyo district, Tan

June 26, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lwidiko E. Mhamilawa, Billy Ngasala, Ulrika Morris, Eliford Ngaimisi Kitabi, Rory Barnes, Aung Paing Soe, Bruno P. Mmbando, Anders Björkman and Andreas Mårtensson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:216, 23 June 2020

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistant Plasmodium falciparum represents an increasing threat to Africa. Extended ACT regimens from standard 3 to 6 days may represent a means to prevent its development and potential spread in Africa.

Estimating the Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Recurrences Caused by Relapse: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

June 15, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Commons RJ, Simpson JA, Watson J, White NJ, Price RN
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 8

Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale form dormant liver hypnozoites that can reactivate weeks to months following initial infection. Malaria recurrences caused by relapses are an important cause of morbidity and source of transmission. To estimate the proportions of P. vivax malaria recurrences caused by relapses in different geographical locations, we systematically reviewed clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, in which patients were randomized to treatment with or without radical cure primaquine regimens and were followed up for 1 year.

NOT Open Access | Case report: recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria due to defective cytochrome P450 2D6 function in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia

June 9, 2020 - 15:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mat Salleh NH, Rahman MFA, Samsusah S, De Silva JR, Ng DC, Ghozali AH, Tan JH, Lai MY, Amir A, Liew JWK, Lau YL
Reference: 
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, traa042

Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely.

Quantification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by spectrophotometry: A systematic review and meta-analysis

May 19, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pfeffer DA, Ley B, Ric N. Price, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med 17(5): e1003084

The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale requires treatment with primaquine or tafenoquine to clear dormant liver stages. Either drug can induce haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, necessitating screening. The reference diagnostic method for G6PD activity is ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry; however, a universal G6PD activity threshold above which these drugs can be safely administered is not yet defined. Our study aimed to quantify assay-based variation in G6PD spectrophotometry and to explore the diagnostic implications of applying a universal threshold.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Primaquine