Plasmodium vivax liver stages (hypnozoites) may cause relapses, prolonging morbidity, and impeding malaria control and elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three schedules for primaquine: 0.25 mg/kg/day (standard), or 0.5 mg/kg/day (high standard) for 14 days, or 0.75 mg/kg once weekly for eight weeks, all of which can be difficult to complete. Since primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, clinicians may be reluctant to prescribe primaquine without G6PD testing, and recommendations when G6PD status is unknown must be based on an assessment of the risks and benefits of prescribing primaquine. Alternative safe and efficacious regimens are needed.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is currently a threat to malaria elimination due to risk of primaquine-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends G6PD screening before providing primaquine as a radical treatment against vivax malaria. However, evidence regarding the prevalence and causing mutations of G6PD deficiency in Nepal is scarce.
Clinical failure of primaquine (PQ) has been demonstrated in people with CYP450 2D6 genetic polymorphisms that result in reduced or no enzyme activity. The distribution of CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted phenotypes in the Cambodian population is not well described. Surveys in other Asian countries have shown an approximate 50% prevalence of the reduced activity CYP2D6 allele *10, which could translate into increased risk of PQ radical cure failure and repeated relapses, making interruption of transmission and malaria elimination difficult to achieve.
Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma concentrations of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine.
To the Editor: In ongoing pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19), clinicians are observing atypical manifestations of the disease.
Primaquine is an effective anti-hypnozoite drug for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. However, it can trigger erythrocyte hemolysis in people with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In a previous report from South Central Timor (SCT), Indonesia, we described the prevalence of Vanua Lava, Chatham, and Viangchan variants; in this study, other G6PD variants (Kaiping, Coimbra, Gaohe, Canton, and Mahidol) were subsequently analyzed. For clarity, all of these results are described together.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistant Plasmodium falciparum represents an increasing threat to Africa. Extended ACT regimens from standard 3 to 6 days may represent a means to prevent its development and potential spread in Africa.
Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale form dormant liver hypnozoites that can reactivate weeks to months following initial infection. Malaria recurrences caused by relapses are an important cause of morbidity and source of transmission. To estimate the proportions of P. vivax malaria recurrences caused by relapses in different geographical locations, we systematically reviewed clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, in which patients were randomized to treatment with or without radical cure primaquine regimens and were followed up for 1 year.
Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely.
The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale requires treatment with primaquine or tafenoquine to clear dormant liver stages. Either drug can induce haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, necessitating screening. The reference diagnostic method for G6PD activity is ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry; however, a universal G6PD activity threshold above which these drugs can be safely administered is not yet defined. Our study aimed to quantify assay-based variation in G6PD spectrophotometry and to explore the diagnostic implications of applying a universal threshold.