Malaria caused by various types of Plasmodium has become a global health problem. One of the drugs used as the first line of malaria therapy is primaquine (PMQ). PMQ is generally administered through the oral route. However, the use of PMQ orally could potentially cause some side effects and undergo the first-pass metabolism in the liver, reducing its effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to develop another drug administration route to avoid this effect. In this study, for the first time, PMQ was formulated into a transdermal patch for transdermal delivery, combined with solid microneedles, Dermaroller®. Following several optimizations, HPMC and glycerin were used as the main polymer and plasticizer, respectively.
Hemolytic toxicity caused by primaquine (PQ) is a high-risk condition that hampers the wide use of PQ to treat liver-stage malaria. This study demonstrated that phospholipid-free small unilamellar vesicles (PFSUVs) composed of Tween80 and cholesterol could encapsulate and deliver PQ to the hepatocytes with reduced exposure to the red blood cells (RBCs). Nonionic surfactant (Tween80) and cholesterol-forming SUVs with a mean diameter of 50 nm were fabricated for delivering PQ. Drug release/retention, drug uptake by RBCs, pharmacokinetics, and liver uptake of PFSUVs-PQ were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models in comparison to free drugs.
In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.
Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.
Malaria is the most common parasitic disease around the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. This parasitic disease can have a rapid and severe evolution. It is transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. There is no reliable vaccine or diagnostic test against malaria; instead, Artesunate is used for the treatment of severe malaria and Artemisinin is used for uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
The relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection is a major barrier to its control and elimination. Factors such as adequate dosing, adherence, drug quality, and pharmacogenetics can impact the effectiveness of radical cure of P. vivax and need to be adequately evaluated. CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine (primaquine) into an active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes, and impaired activity has been linked to a higher risk of relapse.
Primaquine is the only widely available drug for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. There is uncertainty whether the pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine are altered significantly in childhood or not.
The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.
This study aimed to analyze the interaction of primaquine (PQ), chloroquine (CQ), and liposomes to support the design of optimal liposomal delivery for hepatic stage malaria infectious disease. The liposomes were composed of hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy[polyethyleneglycol]-2000), prepared by thin film method, then evaluated for physicochemical and spectrospic characteristics. The calcein release was further evaluated to determine the effect of drug co-loading on liposomal membrane integrity.
Relapses in vivax malaria have posed great challenges for malaria control, and they also account for a great proportion of reported cases. Knowing the real effectiveness of a 7-day primaquine (PQ) scheme is crucial in order to evaluate not only the cost-effectiveness of implementing new anti-hypnozoite drugs, but also how health education strategies can guarantee better compliance and be reinforced. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of daily treatment with chloroquine and PQ supervised by health workers versus prescription without supervision.