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mosquito

Sylvatic Mosquito Diversity in Kenya-Considering Enzootic Ecology of Arboviruses in an Era of Deforestation

June 18, 2020 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gillian Eastwood, Rosemary C Sang, Joel Lutomiah, Philip Tunge, Scott C Weaver
Reference: 
Insects . 2020 Jun 3;11(6):E342

As new and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are occurring across the world, East Africa represents an interesting location, being the origin of several arboviruses with a history of urbanization and global spread. Rapid expansion of urban populations and alteration of natural habitats creates the opportunity for arboviruses to host-switch from wild, sylvatic hosts or vectors into urban transmission affecting human populations. Although mosquito surveillance regularly takes place in urban areas of Kenya, for example identifying vectors of dengue virus or malaria viruses, little work has been carried out to determine the distribution and abundance of sylvatic vectors. Here, we describe the mosquito vector species and diversity collected at twelve forest habitats of rural Kenya.

The Influence of Larval Stage and Density on Oviposition Site-Selection Behavior of the Afrotropical Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii (Diptera: Culicidae)

May 12, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mwingira VS, Spitzen J, Mboera LEG, Torres-Estrada JL, Takken W
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 May 4;57(3):657-666

In the selection of oviposition sites female mosquitoes use various cues to assess site quality to optimize survival of progeny. The presence of conspecific larvae influences this process. Interactive effects of oviposition site selection were studied in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson in dual- and no-choice assays, by exposing single gravid mosquitoes to oviposition cups containing 1) larvae of different developmental stages, 2) larvae-conditioned water (LCW), and 3) cups where visual cues of conspecific larvae were absent.

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Mosquito-Lethal Effects of Ivermectin in Combination With Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine and Primaquine in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

May 7, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kobylinski KC, Jittamala P, Tarning J, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 May;107(5):1221-1230

Mass administration of antimalarial drugs and ivermectin are being considered as potential accelerators of malaria elimination. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and mosquito‐lethal effects of combinations of ivermectin, dihydroartemisinin‐piperaquine, and primaquine were evaluated. Coadministration of ivermectin and dihydroartemisinin‐piperaquine resulted in increased ivermectin concentrations with corresponding increases in mosquito‐lethal effect across all subjects.

NOT Open Access | Human Plasmodium vivax mosquito experimental transmission

April 29, 2020 - 05:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sullivan DJ, Agre P
Reference: 
J Clin Invest. 2020 Apr 27. pii: 135794

Plasmodium vivax bench research greatly lags behind Plasmodium falciparum because of an inability to culture in vitro. A century ago, intentionally inducing a malaria infection was a strategy commonly used to cure late-stage syphilis. These controlled human malaria infections were used with expertise and persisted to the end of World War II.

Phased Conditional Approach for Mosquito Management Using Sterile Insect Technique

April 7, 2020 - 06:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bouyer J, Yamada H, Pereira R, Bourtzis K, Vreysen MJB
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Apr;36(4):325-336

Mosquito-borne diseases represent a major threat to humankind. Recently, the incidence of malaria has stopped decreasing while that of dengue is increasing exponentially. Alternative mosquito-control methods are urgently needed.

NOT Open Access | Bacterial natural products in the fight against mosquito-transmitted tropical diseases

March 30, 2020 - 10:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Saraiva RG, Dimopoulos G
Reference: 
Nat Prod Rep. 2020 Mar 25;37(3):338-354

Secondary metabolites of microbial origin have long been acknowledged as medically relevant, but their full potential remains largely unexploited. Of the countless natural compounds discovered thus far, only 5–10% have been isolated from microorganisms.

Video Recording Can Conveniently Assay Mosquito Locomotor Activity

March 23, 2020 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Araujo MDS, Guo F, Rosbash M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 19;10(1):4994

Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti are perhaps the best studied mosquito species and important carriers of human malaria and arbovirus, respectively. Mosquitoes have daily rhythms in behaviors and show a wide range of activity patterns. Although Anopheles is known to be principally nocturnal and Aedes principally diurnal, details of mosquito activity are not easily assayed in the laboratory.

NOT Open Access | Surprising differences in the respiratory protein of insects: A spectroscopic study of haemoglobin from the European honeybee and the malaria mosquito

March 19, 2020 - 09:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nys K, Cuypers B, Berghmans H, Hammerschmid D, Moens L, Dewilde S, Van Doorslaer S
Reference: 
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2020 Mar 13 :140413

Only recently it was discovered that haemoglobin (Hb) belongs to the standard gene repertoire of insects, although their tracheal system is used for respiration. A classical oxygen-carrying function of Hb is only obvious for hexapods living in hypoxic environments.

Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons

March 18, 2020 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John P. Masalu, Marceline Finda, Gerry F. Killeen, Halfan S. Ngowo, Polius G. Pinda and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:109, 10 March 2020

Residents of malaria-endemic communities spend several hours outdoors performing different activities, e.g. cooking, story-telling or eating, thereby exposing themselves to potentially-infectious mosquitoes. This compromises effectiveness of indoor interventions, notably long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study characterized common peri-domestic spaces in rural south-eastern Tanzania, and assessed protective efficacy against mosquitoes of hessian fabric mats and ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, and fitted to chairs and outdoor kitchens, respectively.

Cas9-Mediated Gene-Editing in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi by ReMOT Control

March 9, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Macias VM, McKeand S, Chaverra-Rodriguez D, Hughes GL, Fazekas A, Pujhari S, Jasinskiene N, James AA, Rasgon JL
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2020 Mar 2. pii: g3.401133.2020

Innovative tools are essential for advancing malaria control and depend on an understanding of molecular mechanisms governing transmission of malaria parasites by Anopheles mosquitoes. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene disruption is a powerful method to uncover underlying biology of vector-pathogen interactions and can itself form the basis of mosquito control strategies. However, embryo injection methods used to genetically manipulate mosquitoes (especially Anopheles) are difficult and inefficient, particularly for non-specialist laboratories.

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