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mosquito

Natural Products: A Potential Source of Malaria Transmission Blocking Drugs

September 23, 2020 - 09:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moyo P, Mugumbate G, Eloff JN, Louw AI, Maharaj VJ, Birkholtz LM
Reference: 
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020 Sep 17;13(9):E251

The ability to block human-to-mosquito and mosquito-to-human transmission of Plasmodium parasites is fundamental to accomplish the ambitious goal of malaria elimination. The WHO currently recommends only primaquine as a transmission-blocking drug but its use is severely restricted by toxicity in some populations. New, safe and clinically effective transmission-blocking drugs therefore need to be discovered.

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination: Phase I Study to Explore Stage-specific Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in US Adults

September 15, 2020 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Healy SA, Murphy SC, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1481-1490

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against a homologous Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs, such as primaquine, act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluated CVac regimens using primaquine and/or chloroquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood-stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.

The Beginning of the End: A Chromosomal Assembly of the New World Malaria Mosquito Ends with a Novel Telomere

September 12, 2020 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Compton A, Liang J, Chen C, Lukyanchikova V, Qi Y, Potters M, Settlage R, Miller D, Deschamps S, Mao C, Llaca V, Sharakhov IV, Tu Z
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2020 Sep 3:g3.401654.2020

Chromosome level assemblies are accumulating in various taxonomic groups including mosquitoes. However, even in the few reference-quality mosquito assemblies, a significant portion of the heterochromatic regions including telomeres remain unresolved. Here we produce a de novo assembly of the New World malaria mosquito, Anopheles albimanus by integrating Oxford Nanopore sequencing, Illumina, Hi-C and optical mapping.

Deconstructing the Impact of Malaria Vector Diversity on Disease Risk

September 5, 2020 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hoi AG, Gilbert B, Mideo N
Reference: 
Am Nat. 2020 Sep;196(3):E61-E70

Recent years have seen significant progress in understanding the impact of host community assemblage on disease risk, yet diversity in disease vectors has rarely been investigated. Using published malaria and mosquito surveys from Kenya, we analyzed the relationship between malaria prevalence and multiple axes of mosquito diversity: abundance, species richness, and composition.

NOT Open Access The role of different Culex mosquito species in the transmission of West Nile virus and avian malaria parasites in Mediterranean areas

August 5, 2020 - 16:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ferraguti M, Heesterbeek H, Martínez-de la Puente J, Jiménez-Clavero MÁ, Vázquez A, Ruiz S, Llorente F, Roiz D, Vernooij H, Soriguer R, Figuerola J
Reference: 
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Aug 4

Vector-borne diseases, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, have severe impacts on public health and economy. West Nile virus (WNV) and avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, are mosquito-borne pathogens that may produce severe disease and illness in humans and birds, respectively, and circulate in an endemic form in southern Europe.

When Is a Plasmodium-Infected Mosquito an Infectious Mosquito

August 4, 2020 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graumans W, Jacobs E, Bousema T, Sinnis P
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Aug;36(8):705-716

Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito's capacity to give rise to secondary infections.

A Phase IIa Controlled Human Malaria Infection and Immunogenicity Study of RTS,S/AS01E and RTS,S/AS01B Delayed Fractional Dose Regimens in Malaria-Naïve Adults

July 21, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moon JE, Ockenhouse C, Ofori-Anyinam O, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 20:jiaa421

A previous RTS,S/AS01B vaccine challenge trial demonstrated a three-dose (0,1,7-month [M]) regimen with a fractional third dose can produce high vaccine efficacy (VE) in adults challenged three weeks post-vaccination. This study explored VE of different delayed fractional dose-regimens of adult and pediatric RTS,S/AS01-formulations.

Sylvatic Mosquito Diversity in Kenya-Considering Enzootic Ecology of Arboviruses in an Era of Deforestation

June 18, 2020 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gillian Eastwood, Rosemary C Sang, Joel Lutomiah, Philip Tunge, Scott C Weaver
Reference: 
Insects . 2020 Jun 3;11(6):E342

As new and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are occurring across the world, East Africa represents an interesting location, being the origin of several arboviruses with a history of urbanization and global spread. Rapid expansion of urban populations and alteration of natural habitats creates the opportunity for arboviruses to host-switch from wild, sylvatic hosts or vectors into urban transmission affecting human populations. Although mosquito surveillance regularly takes place in urban areas of Kenya, for example identifying vectors of dengue virus or malaria viruses, little work has been carried out to determine the distribution and abundance of sylvatic vectors. Here, we describe the mosquito vector species and diversity collected at twelve forest habitats of rural Kenya.

The Influence of Larval Stage and Density on Oviposition Site-Selection Behavior of the Afrotropical Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii (Diptera: Culicidae)

May 12, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mwingira VS, Spitzen J, Mboera LEG, Torres-Estrada JL, Takken W
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 May 4;57(3):657-666

In the selection of oviposition sites female mosquitoes use various cues to assess site quality to optimize survival of progeny. The presence of conspecific larvae influences this process. Interactive effects of oviposition site selection were studied in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson in dual- and no-choice assays, by exposing single gravid mosquitoes to oviposition cups containing 1) larvae of different developmental stages, 2) larvae-conditioned water (LCW), and 3) cups where visual cues of conspecific larvae were absent.

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