Malaria is a principal cause of illness and death in countries where the disease is endemic. Personal protection against mosquitoes using repellents could be a useful method that can reduce and/or prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The available repellent products, such as creams, roll-ons, and sprays for personal protection against mosquitoes, lack adequate long-term efficacy. In most cases, they need to be re-applied or replaced frequently. The encapsulation and release of the repellents from several matrices has risen as an alternative process for the development of invention of repellent based systems.
Approximately 70% of Kenya’s population is at risk for malaria. The core vector control methods in Kenya are insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying, with supplementary larval source management. In 2015, 21% of ITNs were accessed through the private retail sector. Despite the private sector role in supplying mosquito control products (MCPs), there is little evidence on the availability, sales trends, and consumer preferences for MCPs other than ITNs. This study, a component of a larger research programme focused on evaluating a spatial repellent intervention class for mosquito-borne disease control, addressed this evidence gap on the role of the private sector in supplying MCPs.
The paper describes the development of a long-lasting product for Intra-domicile residual spray (IRS) and shows it is possible to obtain a residual effect of nearly 2 years. However, to obtain that the methods currently recommended by WHO for laboratory evaluation had to be modified and approached methods closer to the semifield and field evaluations as applied in later phases of WHO procedures.
High avidity antibodies (Abs) are acquired after a few Plasmodium falciparum infections in low transmission areas, but it remains unclear if Ab avidity to different merozoite antigens increases with age in individuals with persistent antigenemia and if so, when a fully mature Ab response occurs.
Africans pour dirty water around their houses which constitutes aquatic habitats (AH). These AH are sought by mosquitoes for larval development. Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of destroying AH around houses in reducing malaria incidence. An agent-based model is proposed for controlling malaria’s incidence through population sensitizing campaigns on the harmful effects of AH around houses.
Captive populations of penguins outside of their natural distributions are often maintained in outdoor facilities, such as zoos and aquariums. Consequently, such penguins in captivity are constantly exposed to mosquito vectors and risk of avian malarial infection during their active period from spring to autumn, which can be lethal to these naïve birds. Previous studies have investigated parasite prevalence in mosquitoes or penguins, but simultaneous investigations, which would be crucial to monitor the transmission dynamics and cycle within a facility, have not been done. To identify dominant lineages and trends, multiple-year surveys are recommended.
Transmission of malaria-causing parasites to and by the mosquito relies on active parasite migration and constitutes bottlenecks in the Plasmodium life cycle. Parasite adaption to the biochemically and physically different environments must hence be a key evolutionary driver for transmission efficiency. To probe how subtle but physiologically relevant changes in environmental elasticity impact parasite migration, we introduce 2D and 3D polyacrylamide gels to study ookinetes, the parasite forms emigrating from the mosquito blood meal and sporozoites, the forms transmitted to the vertebrate host.
Transmission-blocking vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes are being tested in early clinical trials. The activity of such a vaccine is commonly evaluated using membrane-feeding assays. Understanding the field efficacy of such a vaccine requires knowledge of how heavily infected wild, naturally blood-fed mosquitoes are, as this indicates how difficult it will be to block transmission.
Lack of tools for detailed, real-time observation of mosquito behavior with high spatio-temporal resolution limits progress towards improved malaria vector control. We deployed a high-resolution entomological lidar to monitor a half-kilometer static transect positioned over rice fields outside a Tanzanian village. A quarter of a million in situ insect observations were classified, and several insect taxa were identified based on their modulation signatures.
Male and female gametocytes are sexual precursor cells essential for mosquito transmission of malaria parasite. Differentiation of gametocytes into fertile gametes (known as gametogenesis) relies on the gender-specific transcription program. How the parasites establish distinct repertoires of transcription in the male and female gametocytes remains largely unknown.