Recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions including western Africa have now shown that Plasmodium vivax can infect red blood cells (RBCs) and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people, though the Duffy-negative phenotype was thought to confer complete refractoriness against blood invasion with P. vivax. The actual prevalence of P. vivax in local populations in Ghana is unknown and little information is available about the distribution of Duffy genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of P. vivax in both asymptomatic and symptomatic outpatients and the distribution of Duffy genotypes in Ghana.
The increasing incidence of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, coupled with the risk of co-infections in malaria-endemic regions, complicates accurate diagnosis and prolongs hospitalization, thereby increasing the total cost of illness. Further, there are challenges in making the correct choice of antibiotic treatment and duration, precipitated by a lack of access to microbial culture facilities in many hospitals in Ghana. The aim of this case report is to highlight the need for blood cultures or alternative rapid tests to be performed routinely in malaria patients, to diagnose co-infections with bacteria, especially when symptoms persist after antimalarial treatment.
Parasitological diagnosis generates data to assist malaria-endemic countries determine their status within the malaria elimination continuum and also inform the deployment of proven interventions to yield maximum impact. This study determined prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mRDT performances among febrile patients in selected health care facilities across Ghana.
This article explores the multifaceted perceptions among householders about the care, efficacy and disposal of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), especially those regarding the end of the useful life of LLINs, and their implications for malaria control.
Accurate measurement of anti-malarial drug concentrations in therapeutic efficacy studies is essential to distinguish between inadequate drug exposure and anti-malarial drug resistance, and to inform optimal anti-malarial dosing in key target population groups.
Malaria in pregnancy is a huge public health problem as it is the cause of maternal anaemia, still birth, premature delivery, low birth weight among others. To tackle this problem, WHO recommended the administration, during pregnancy, of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). The introduction of this policy is likely to create SP drug pressure which may lead to the emergence of parasite strains resistant to the drug.
Malaria is the infection caused by inoculation with the mostly obligate intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Severe malaria manifests as multiple organ dysfunction with high parasitemia counts characterized by coma, stupor, and severe metabolic acidosis. Physicians in the United States do not frequently encounter patients with malaria, and the drugs are only available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which makes the management of this disease somewhat complicated. In 2019, the marketing of quinine for malaria was discontinued. In May 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of intravenous artesunate for the treatment of adults and children with severe malaria.
Developing a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been challenging, primarily due to high levels of antigen polymorphism and a complex parasite lifecycle. Immunization with the P. falciparum merozoite antigens PfMSRP5, PfSERA9, PfRAMA, PfCyRPA and PfRH5 has been shown to give rise to growth inhibitory and synergistic antisera. Therefore, these five merozoite proteins are considered to be promising candidates for a second-generation multivalent malaria vaccine. Nevertheless, little is known about IgG and IgM responses to these antigens in populations that are naturally exposed to P. falciparum. In this study, serum samples from clinically immune adults and malaria exposed children from Ghana were studied to compare levels of IgG and IgM specific for PfMSRP5, PfSERA9, PfRAMA, PfCyRPA and PfRH5.
Drug resistance remains a concern for malaria control and elimination. The effect of interventions on its prevalence needs to be monitored to pre-empt further selection. We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum gene mutations associated with resistance to the antimalarial drugs: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs) after the scale-up of a vector control activity that reduced transmission.
Malaria has been one of the commonest diseases during farming season, which affects farmers’ health resulting in a reduction in the number of days spent on the farm. As a result, farmers are regularly trying to avert malaria infection through preventive measures. Motivated by this argument, this study sought to determine the effects of malaria averting expenditure on labour productivity of maize farmers in Bunkpurugu-Nakpanduri District in the Northern Region of Ghana.