Interest in larval source management (LSM) as an adjunct intervention to control and eliminate malaria transmission has recently increased mainly because long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are ineffective against exophagic and exophilic mosquitoes.
long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
The core vector control measures, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), reduce the risk of malaria infection by targeting indoor biting mosquitoes.
From 2012 to 2015, the annual IRS campaigns in Ségou are associated with several hundred thousand fewer cases of malaria.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have contributed substantially to reductions in the burden of malaria in the past 15 years.
Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them.
Protecting individuals and households against mosquito bites with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) can suppress entire populations of unusually efficient malaria vector species that predominantly feed indoors on humans.
This study suggests that using a carbamate insecticide for IRS in areas with high levels of pyrethroid resistance may reduce kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s.
Coverage of LLIN was low and significant more likely to be owned by the rich households, whereas houses were sprayed equitably.
While existing vector control interventions have dramatically attenuated malaria transmission in Dar es Salaam, further scale-up and additional measures to protect against mosquito bites outdoors are desirable.
Although there has been a significant increase in the use of mosquito nets since the previous Malaria Indicator Survey done in 2009, particularly in the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), these control measures alone may not be sufficient.