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Malaysia

Comparative evaluation of two commercial real-time PCR kits (QuantiFast™ and abTES™) for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia

September 1, 2020 - 09:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nor Afizah Nuin, Angelica F. Tan, Matthew J. Grigg, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:306, 27 August 2020

The monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is an emerging public health issue in Southeast Asia. In Sabah, Malaysia, P. knowlesi is now the dominant cause of human malaria. Molecular detection methods for P. knowlesi are essential for accurate diagnosis and in monitoring progress towards malaria elimination of other Plasmodium species. However, recent commercially available PCR malaria kits have unpublished P. knowlesi gene targets or have not been evaluated against clinical samples.

Natural Wolbachia infection in field-collected Anopheles and other mosquito species from Malaysia

August 18, 2020 - 14:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wong ML, Liew JWK, Wong WK, Pramasivan S, Mohamed Hassan N, Wan Sulaiman WY, Jeyaprakasam NK, Leong CS, Low VL, Vythilingam I
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 12;13(1):414

The endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is maternally inherited and naturally infects some filarial nematodes and a diverse range of arthropods, including mosquito vectors responsible for disease transmission in humans. Previously, it has been found infecting most mosquito species but absent in Anopheles and Aedes aegypti. However, recently these two mosquito species were found to be naturally infected with Wolbachia. We report here the extent of Wolbachia infections in field-collected mosquitoes from Malaysia based on PCR amplification of the Wolbachia wsp and 16S rRNA genes.

Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. knowlesi Infections, Malaysian Borneo

August 4, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Raja TN, Hu TH, Kadir KA, Mohamad DSA, Rosli N, Wong LL, Hii KC, Simon Divis PC, Singh B
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug; 26(8):1801-1809

To monitor the incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi infections and determine whether other simian malaria parasites are being transmitted to humans, we examined 1,047 blood samples from patients with malaria at Kapit Hospital in Kapit, Malaysia, during June 24, 2013-December 31, 2017. Using nested PCR assays, we found 845 (80.6%) patients had either P. knowlesi monoinfection (n = 815) or co-infection with other Plasmodium species (n = 30).

Population Genomic Structure and Recent Evolution of Plasmodium knowlesi, Peninsular Malaysia

August 4, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hocking SE, Divis PCS, Kadir KA, Singh B, Conway DJ
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug; 26(8):1749-1758

Most malaria in Malaysia is caused by Plasmodium knowlesi parasites through zoonotic infection from macaque reservoir hosts. We obtained genome sequences from 28 clinical infections in Peninsular Malaysia to clarify the emerging parasite population structure and test for evidence of recent adaptation. The parasites all belonged to a major genetic population of P. knowlesi (cluster 3) with high genomewide divergence from populations occurring in Borneo (clusters 1 and 2).

Efficient Surveillance of Plasmodium knowlesi Genetic Subpopulations, Malaysian Borneo, 2000-2018

July 8, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Divis PCS, Hu TH, Kadir KA, Mohammad DSA, Hii KC, Daneshvar C, Conway DJ, Singh B
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;26(7):1392-1398

Population genetic analysis revealed that Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Malaysian Borneo are caused by 2 divergent parasites associated with long-tailed (cluster 1) and pig-tailed (cluster 2) macaques. Because the transmission ecology is likely to differ for each macaque species, we developed a simple genotyping PCR to efficiently distinguish between and survey the 2 parasite subpopulations.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Asymptomatic and/or Low-Density Malaria Infection among High-Risk Groups in Peninsular Malaysia

July 7, 2020 - 12:50 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Noordin NR, Lee PY, Mohd Bukhari FD, Fong MY, Abdul Hamid MH, Jelip J, Mudin RN, Lau YL
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 6

Asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection has been acknowledged as an obstacle to achieving a malaria-free country. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection in previously reported malarious localities using nested PCR in four states, namely, Johor, Pahang, Kelantan, and Selangor, between June 2019 and January 2020. Blood samples (n = 585) were collected and were extracted using a QIAamp blood kit.

NOT Open Access | Case report: recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria due to defective cytochrome P450 2D6 function in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia

June 9, 2020 - 15:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mat Salleh NH, Rahman MFA, Samsusah S, De Silva JR, Ng DC, Ghozali AH, Tan JH, Lai MY, Amir A, Liew JWK, Lau YL
Reference: 
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, traa042

Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely.

Indoor and outdoor residual spraying of a novel formulation of deltamethrin K-Othrine® (Polyzone) for the control of simian malaria in Sabah, Malaysia

May 19, 2020 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rohani A, Fakhriy HA, Lee HL, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(5): e0230860

Since 2000, human malaria cases in Malaysia were rapidly reduced with the use of insecticides in Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) and Long-Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN). Unfortunately, monkey malaria in humans has shown an increase especially in Sabah and Sarawak. The insecticide currently used in IRS is deltamethrin K-Othrine® WG 250 wettable granule, targeting mosquitoes that rest and feed indoor. In Sabah, the primary vector for knowlesi malaria is An. balabacensis a species known to bite outdoor.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax drug resistance markers: Genetic polymorphisms and mutation patterns in isolates from Malaysia

March 25, 2020 - 14:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Cheong FW, Dzul S, Fong MY, Lau YL, Ponnampalavanar S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 Mar 20:105454

Transmission of Plasmodium vivax still persist in Malaysia despite the government's aim to eliminate malaria in 2020. High treatment failure rate of chloroquine monotherapy was reported recently. Hence, parasite drug susceptibility should be kept under close monitoring. Mutation analysis of the drug resistance markers is useful for reconnaissance of anti-malarial drug resistance. Hitherto, information on P. vivax drug resistance marker in Malaysia are limited.

Updates on malaria incidence and profile in Malaysia from 2013 to 2017

February 10, 2020 - 15:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Narwani Hussin, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Pik Pin Goh, Timothy William, Jenarun Jelip and Rose Nani Mudin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:55, 31 January 2020

To date, most of the recent publications on malaria in Malaysia were conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia focusing on the emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi. This analysis aims to describe the incidence, mortality and case fatality rate of malaria caused by all Plasmodium species between Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) over a 5-year period (2013–2017).

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