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parasite

PV1 Protein from Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Chaperone-Like Functions and Cooperates with Hsp100s

November 19, 2020 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hakamada K, Nakamura M, Yohda M, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 16;21(22):E8616

Plasmodium falciparum parasitophorous vacuolar protein 1 (PfPV1), a protein unique to malaria parasites, is localized in the parasitophorous vacuolar (PV) and is essential for parasite growth. Previous studies suggested that PfPV1 cooperates with the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) complex to export various proteins from the PV.

NOT Open Access | Inhibitory KIR ligands are associated with higher P. falciparum parasite prevalence

November 10, 2020 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Digitale JC, Callaway PC, Feeney ME, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 9:jiaa698

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA ligands influence the outcome of many infectious diseases. We analyzed the relationship of compound KIR-HLA genotypes with risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a longitudinal cohort of 890 Ugandan individuals. We found that presence of HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4, ligands for inhibitory KIR2DL1 and KIR3DL1, respectively, increased the likelihood of P. falciparum parasitemia in an additive manner.

Not Open Access | Battleground midgut: the cost to the mosquito for hosting the malaria parasite

November 4, 2020 - 09:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hajkazemian M, Bossé C, Mozūraitis R, Emami SN
Reference: 
Biol Cell. 2020 Oct 30

In eco-evolutionary studies of parasite-host interactions, virulence is defined as a reduction in host fitness as a result of infection relative to an uninfected host. Pathogen virulence may either promote parasite transmission, when correlated with higher parasite replication rate or decrease the transmission rate if the pathogen quickly kills the host.

Molecular surveillance reveals the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations in Uganda, 2017–2019

August 27, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agaba B. Bosco, Karen Anderson, Karryn Gresty, et al
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:300, 26 August 2020

Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda.

NOT Open Access The role of different Culex mosquito species in the transmission of West Nile virus and avian malaria parasites in Mediterranean areas

August 5, 2020 - 16:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ferraguti M, Heesterbeek H, Martínez-de la Puente J, Jiménez-Clavero MÁ, Vázquez A, Ruiz S, Llorente F, Roiz D, Vernooij H, Soriguer R, Figuerola J
Reference: 
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Aug 4

Vector-borne diseases, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, have severe impacts on public health and economy. West Nile virus (WNV) and avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, are mosquito-borne pathogens that may produce severe disease and illness in humans and birds, respectively, and circulate in an endemic form in southern Europe.

Emergence and clonal expansion of in vitro artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 R561H mutant parasites in Rwanda

August 5, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Uwimana A, Legrand E, Stokes BH, Ndikumana JM, Warsame M, Umulisa N, Ngamije D, Munyaneza T, Mazarati JB, Munguti K, Campagne P, Criscuolo A, Ariey F, Murindahabi M, Ringwald P, Fidock DA, Mbituyumuremyi A, Menard D
Reference: 
Nat Med. 2020 Aug 3. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1005-2

Artemisinin resistance (delayed P. falciparum clearance following artemisinin-based combination therapy), is widespread across Southeast Asia but to date has not been reported in Africa. Here we genotyped the P. falciparum K13 (Pfkelch13) propeller domain, mutations in which can mediate artemisinin resistance, in pretreatment samples collected from recent dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine efficacy trials in Rwanda.

When Is a Plasmodium-Infected Mosquito an Infectious Mosquito

August 4, 2020 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graumans W, Jacobs E, Bousema T, Sinnis P
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Aug;36(8):705-716

Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito's capacity to give rise to secondary infections.

Evidence for Reduced Malaria Parasite Population after Application of Population-Level Antimalarial Drug Strategies in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniels RF, Schaffner SF, Bennett A, Porter TR, Yukich JO, Mulube C, Mambwe B, Mwenda MC, Chishimba S, Bridges DJ, Moonga H, Hamainza B, Chizema Kawesha E, Miller JM, Steketee RW, Wirth DF, Eisele TP, Hartl DL, Volkman SK
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–8

A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden.

Comprehensive proteomics investigation of P. vivax-infected human plasma and parasite isolates

March 9, 2020 - 14:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Venkatesh A, Aggarwal S, Kumar S, Rajyaguru S, Kumar V, Bankar S, Shastri J, Patankar S, Srivastava S
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 2;20(1):188

In recent times, Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) has become a serious threat to public health due to its ability to cause severe infection with fatal outcomes. Its unique biology makes it resilient to control measures that are otherwise effective against P. falciparum. A deeper understanding of P. vivax biology and pathogenesis is, therefore, essential for developing the right control strategies. 

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