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NOT Open Access | High prevalence of plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale in co-infections with plasmodium falciparum in asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers in southwestern Nigeria

August 17, 2021 - 17:11 -- NOT Open Access
Abdulraheem MA, Ernest M, Ugwuanyi I, Abkallo HM, Nishikawa S, Adeleke M, Orimadegun AE, Culleton R
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Aug 11:S0020-7519(21)00239-3

Asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers do not seek anti-malarial treatment and may constitute a silent infectious reservoir. In order to assess the level of asymptomatic and symptomatic carriage amongst adolescents in a highly endemic area, and to identify the risk factors associated with such carriage, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1032 adolescents (ages 10-19 years) from eight schools located in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria in 2016.

NOT Open Access | There and back again: malaria parasite single-cell transcriptomics comes full circle

August 17, 2021 - 14:41 -- NOT Open Access
Nötzel C, Kafsack BFC
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Aug 11:S1471-4922(21)00176-8

The Malaria Cell Atlas (MCA) is an ambitious, ongoing project to profile the intensity and heterogeneity of gene expression throughout the entire malaria parasite life cycle with single-cell resolution. Real et al. now complete the cycle by adding the transmission stages of the most virulent malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to this easy-to-use resource.

Malaria parasites both repress host CXCL10 and use it as a cue for growth acceleration

August 17, 2021 - 14:33 -- Open Access
Ofir-Birin Y, Ben Ami Pilo H, Cruz Camacho A, Rudik A, Rivkin A, Revach OY, Nir N, Block Tamin T, Abou Karam P, Kiper E, Peleg Y, Nevo R, Solomon A, Havkin-Solomon T, Rojas A, Rotkopf R, Porat Z, Avni D, Schwartz E, Zillinger T, Hartmann G, Di Pizio A, Quashie NB, Dikstein R, Gerlic M, Torrecilhas AC, Levy C, Nolte-'t Hoen ENM, Bowie AG, Regev-Rudzki N
Nat Commun. 2021 Aug 11;12(1):4851

Pathogens are thought to use host molecular cues to control when to initiate life-cycle transitions, but these signals are mostly unknown, particularly for the parasitic disease malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The chemokine CXCL10 is present at high levels in fatal cases of cerebral malaria patients, but is reduced in patients who survive and do not have complications.

PV1 Protein from Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Chaperone-Like Functions and Cooperates with Hsp100s

November 19, 2020 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Hakamada K, Nakamura M, Yohda M, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 16;21(22):E8616

Plasmodium falciparum parasitophorous vacuolar protein 1 (PfPV1), a protein unique to malaria parasites, is localized in the parasitophorous vacuolar (PV) and is essential for parasite growth. Previous studies suggested that PfPV1 cooperates with the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) complex to export various proteins from the PV.

NOT Open Access | Inhibitory KIR ligands are associated with higher P. falciparum parasite prevalence

November 10, 2020 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Digitale JC, Callaway PC, Feeney ME, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 9:jiaa698

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA ligands influence the outcome of many infectious diseases. We analyzed the relationship of compound KIR-HLA genotypes with risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a longitudinal cohort of 890 Ugandan individuals. We found that presence of HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4, ligands for inhibitory KIR2DL1 and KIR3DL1, respectively, increased the likelihood of P. falciparum parasitemia in an additive manner.

Not Open Access | Battleground midgut: the cost to the mosquito for hosting the malaria parasite

November 4, 2020 - 09:33 -- NOT Open Access
Hajkazemian M, Bossé C, Mozūraitis R, Emami SN
Biol Cell. 2020 Oct 30

In eco-evolutionary studies of parasite-host interactions, virulence is defined as a reduction in host fitness as a result of infection relative to an uninfected host. Pathogen virulence may either promote parasite transmission, when correlated with higher parasite replication rate or decrease the transmission rate if the pathogen quickly kills the host.

Molecular surveillance reveals the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations in Uganda, 2017–2019

August 27, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Agaba B. Bosco, Karen Anderson, Karryn Gresty, et al
Malaria Journal 2020 19:300, 26 August 2020

Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda.

NOT Open Access The role of different Culex mosquito species in the transmission of West Nile virus and avian malaria parasites in Mediterranean areas

August 5, 2020 - 16:03 -- NOT Open Access
Ferraguti M, Heesterbeek H, Martínez-de la Puente J, Jiménez-Clavero MÁ, Vázquez A, Ruiz S, Llorente F, Roiz D, Vernooij H, Soriguer R, Figuerola J
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Aug 4

Vector-borne diseases, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, have severe impacts on public health and economy. West Nile virus (WNV) and avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, are mosquito-borne pathogens that may produce severe disease and illness in humans and birds, respectively, and circulate in an endemic form in southern Europe.

Emergence and clonal expansion of in vitro artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 R561H mutant parasites in Rwanda

August 5, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Uwimana A, Legrand E, Stokes BH, Ndikumana JM, Warsame M, Umulisa N, Ngamije D, Munyaneza T, Mazarati JB, Munguti K, Campagne P, Criscuolo A, Ariey F, Murindahabi M, Ringwald P, Fidock DA, Mbituyumuremyi A, Menard D
Nat Med. 2020 Aug 3. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1005-2

Artemisinin resistance (delayed P. falciparum clearance following artemisinin-based combination therapy), is widespread across Southeast Asia but to date has not been reported in Africa. Here we genotyped the P. falciparum K13 (Pfkelch13) propeller domain, mutations in which can mediate artemisinin resistance, in pretreatment samples collected from recent dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine efficacy trials in Rwanda.


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