Transmission of malaria in the highlands of Ethiopia is poorly understood and usually attributed to importation by mobile populations or local transmission by Anopheles arabiensis. To characterize and identify Anopheles species present in a highland area of northern Ethiopia, adult and larval collections were performed in Gondar town and the neighboring Senbet Debir village (Dembia district, > 2000 meters above sea level, masl), in addition to Bahir Dar town (capital of Amhara region) and Kumer Aftit village (Metema district, < 2000 masl).
Although the World Health Organization disseminated best practice guidelines for insecticide resistance management (IRM), Rollback Malaria’s Vector Control Working Group identified the lack of practical knowledge of IRM as the primary gap in the translation of evidence into policy. ResistanceSim is a capacity strengthening tool designed to address this gap.
These findings will help in monitoring the spread and evolution of carbamate resistance and improve the design of effective resistance management strategies to control this malaria vector.
Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. gambiae larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females to directly modulate the chemical ecology of oviposition site selection.
Here we conducted whole-genome sequencing on 24 specimens of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to further understanding of patterns of genetic diversity, population subdivision and linkage disequilibrium in this species.
These clusters are coincident with the central African rainforest belt and northern and southern savannah biomes, which suggests restrictions to gene flow associated with the transition between these biomes. By contrast, geographically patterned population substructure appears much weaker within the S-form.
This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes.
Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.