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Brazil

Setting-up a cross-border action-research project to control malaria in remote areas of the Amazon: describing the birth and milestones of a complex international project (Malakit)

May 12, 2021 - 11:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Muriel Suzanne Galindo, Yann Lambert, Maylis Douine, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:216, 11 May 2021

In French Guiana, gold miners working illegally represents a major reservoir of malaria. This mobile population, mainly of Brazilian descent, enters the French Guianese forest from neighbouring countries, Suriname and Brazil. A complex and innovative intervention was piloted as a cooperation with the three involved countries involved to control malaria in this specific population. The principle was that health workers called “facilitators” provide the participants with a self-diagnosis and self-treatment kit along with adequate training and material to rapidly manage an episode of malaria symptoms on their own, when they find themselves isolated from health care services.

Estimated impact of tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax control and elimination in Brazil: A modelling study

April 29, 2021 - 08:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nekkab N, Lana R, Lacerda M, Obadia T, Siqueira A, Monteiro W, Villela D, Mueller I, White M
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003535

Despite recent intensification of control measures, Plasmodium vivax poses a major challenge for malaria elimination efforts. Liver-stage hypnozoite parasites that cause relapsing infections can be cleared with primaquine; however, poor treatment adherence undermines drug effectiveness. Tafenoquine, a new single-dose treatment, offers an alternative option for preventing relapses and reducing transmission. In 2018, over 237,000 cases of malaria were reported to the Brazilian health system, of which 91.5% were due to P. vivax.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium simium: population genomics reveals the origin of a reverse zoonosis

April 22, 2021 - 08:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Oliveira TC, Rodrigues PT, Early AM, Duarte AMRC, Buery JC, Bueno MG, Catão-Dias JL, Cerutti C Jr, Rona LDP, Neafsey DE, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 19:jiab214

The population history of Plasmodium simium, which causes malaria in sylvatic Neotropical monkeys and humans along the Atlantic Coast of Brazil, remains disputed. Genetically diverse P. vivax populations from various sources, including the lineages that founded the species P. simium, are thought to have arrived in the Americas in separate migratory waves.

Ecology and larval population dynamics of the primary malaria vector Nyssorhynchus darlingi in a high transmission setting dominated by fish farming in western Amazonian Brazil

April 13, 2021 - 13:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rufalco-Moutinho P, Moura Kadri S, Martins Ribolla PE, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Apr 8;16(4):e0246215

Vale do Rio Juruá in western Acre, Brazil, is a persistent malaria transmission hotspot partly due to fish farming development that was encouraged to improve local standards of living. Fish ponds can be productive breeding sites for Amazonian malaria vector species, including Nyssorhynchus darlingi, which, combined with high human density and mobility, add to the local malaria burden.This study reports entomological profile of immature and adult Ny. darlingi at three sites in Mâncio Lima, Acre, during the rainy and dry season (February to September, 2017).

Cross-border malaria in Northern Brazil

March 10, 2021 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicholas J. Arisco, Cassio Peterka and Marcia C. Castro
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:135, 6 March 2021

Cross-border malaria is a major barrier to elimination efforts. Along the Venezuela-Brazil-Guyana border, intense human mobility fueled primarily by a humanitarian crisis and illegal gold mining activities has increased the occurrence of cross-border cases in Brazil. Roraima, a Brazilian state situated between Venezuela and Guyana, bears the greatest burden. This study analyses the current cross-border malaria epidemiology in Northern Brazil between the years 2007 and 2018.

Evaluation of prediction models for the occurrence of malaria in the state of Amapa, Brazil, 1997-2016: an ecological study

February 25, 2021 - 10:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lima MVM, Laporta GZ
Reference: 
Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2021 Feb 15;30(1):e2020080

To evaluate the predictive power of different malaria case time-series models in the state of Amapá, Brazil, for the period 1997-2016.

The top 1%: quantifying the unequal distribution of malaria in Brazil

February 15, 2021 - 16:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Raquel Lana, Narimane Nekkab, Andre M. Siqueira, Cassio Peterka, Paola Marchesini, Marcus Lacerda, Ivo Mueller, Michael White and Daniel Villela
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:87, 12 February 2021

As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy.

Value regimes and pricing in the pharmaceutical industry: financial capital inflation (hepatitis C) versus innovation and production capital savings for malaria medicines

January 21, 2021 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cassier M
Reference: 
Biosocieties. 2021 Jan 13:1-19

The idea of this paper is to draw a parallel between two diametrically opposed political economies of medicine that coexist today. The first is embodied in the invention, appropriation, and distribution of antivirals for hepatitis C, particularly sofosbuvir, which was commercialized at an initial price of $85,000 in the United States, €56,000 in France, and $8000 in Brazil.

Measuring the contribution of human mobility to malaria persistence

November 12, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marcelo F. C. Gomes, Cláudia T Codeço, Leonardo S. Bastos and Raquel M. Lana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:404, 11 November 2020

To achieve malaria elimination, it is important to determine the role of human mobility in parasite transmission maintenance. The Alto Juruá basin (Brazil) exhibits one of the largest vivax and falciparum malaria prevalence in the Amazon. The goal of this study was to estimate the contribution of human commutes to malaria persistence in this region, using data from an origin-destination survey.

Population genomics reveals the expansion of highly inbred Plasmodium vivax lineages in the main malaria hotspot of Brazil

October 31, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Oliveira TC, Corder RM, Early A, Rodrigues PT, Ladeia-Andrade S, Alves JMP, Neafsey DE, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Oct 28;14(10):e0008808

Plasmodium vivax is a neglected human malaria parasite that causes significant morbidity in the Americas, the Middle East, Asia, and the Western Pacific. Population genomic approaches remain little explored to map local and regional transmission pathways of P. vivax across the main endemic sites in the Americas, where great progress has been made towards malaria elimination over the past decades.

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