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Brazil

Measuring the contribution of human mobility to malaria persistence

November 12, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marcelo F. C. Gomes, Cláudia T Codeço, Leonardo S. Bastos and Raquel M. Lana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:404, 11 November 2020

To achieve malaria elimination, it is important to determine the role of human mobility in parasite transmission maintenance. The Alto Juruá basin (Brazil) exhibits one of the largest vivax and falciparum malaria prevalence in the Amazon. The goal of this study was to estimate the contribution of human commutes to malaria persistence in this region, using data from an origin-destination survey.

Population genomics reveals the expansion of highly inbred Plasmodium vivax lineages in the main malaria hotspot of Brazil

October 31, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Oliveira TC, Corder RM, Early A, Rodrigues PT, Ladeia-Andrade S, Alves JMP, Neafsey DE, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Oct 28;14(10):e0008808

Plasmodium vivax is a neglected human malaria parasite that causes significant morbidity in the Americas, the Middle East, Asia, and the Western Pacific. Population genomic approaches remain little explored to map local and regional transmission pathways of P. vivax across the main endemic sites in the Americas, where great progress has been made towards malaria elimination over the past decades.

Vector-Focused Approaches to Curb Malaria Transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: An Overview of Current and Future Challenges and Strategies

October 31, 2020 - 09:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rocha EM, Katak RM, Campos de Oliveira J, Araujo MDS, Carlos BC, Galizi R, Tripet F, Marinotti O, Souza-Neto JA
Reference: 
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 20;5(4):E161

In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been made towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to control or eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi.

The influence of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure and diversity of the malaria vector Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae)

October 28, 2020 - 08:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Multini LC, de Souza ALDS, Marrelli MT, Wilke ABB
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 22;10(1):18018

Fragmentation of natural environments as a result of human interference has been associated with a decrease in species richness and increase in abundance of a few species that have adapted to these environments. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest, which has been undergoing an intense process of fragmentation and deforestation caused by human-made changes to the environment, is an important hotspot for malaria transmission.

Not Open Access | Impact of Plasmodium vivax malaria and antimalarial treatment on cytochrome P450 activity in Brazilian patients

October 1, 2020 - 15:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Almeida AC, Elias ABR, Marques MP, de Melo GC, da Costa AG, Figueiredo EFG, Brasil LW, Rodrigues-Soares F, Monteiro WM, de Lacerda MVG, Lanchote VL, Suarez-Kurtz G
Reference: 
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 30

To investigate the impact of Plasmodium vivax malaria and chloroquine‐primaquine chemotherapy on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 activity in patients from the Brazilian Amazon.

Changes in malaria patterns in Brazil over 28 years (1990-2017): results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

October 1, 2020 - 15:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bezerra JMT, Barbosa DS, Martins-Melo FR, Werneck GL, Braga ÉM, Tauil PL, Carneiro M
Reference: 
Popul Health Metr. 2020 Sep 30;18(Suppl 1):5

This study presents the malaria burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), by analyzing disease burden indicators in federated units of the Legal Amazon and Extra-Amazon regions, as well as describing malaria cases according to Plasmodium species occurring in the country.

Contributing to Elimination of Cross-Border Malaria Through a Standardized Solution for Case Surveillance, Data Sharing, and Data Interpretation: Development of a Cross-Border Monitoring System

September 5, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Saldanha R, Mosnier É, Barcellos C, Carbunar A, Charron C, Desconnets JC, Guarmit B, Gomes MDSM, Mandon T, Mendes AM, Peiter PC, Musset L, Sanna A, Van Gastel B, Roux E
Reference: 
JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020 Sep 1;6(3):e15409

Cross-border malaria is a significant obstacle to achieving malaria control and elimination worldwide.

Utility of ultra-sensitive qPCR to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections under different transmission intensities

September 5, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Ingrid Felger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:319, 3 September 2020

The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.

Use of a NAT-based assay to improve the surveillance system and prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria in blood banks

August 4, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniele Rocha, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Patrícia Alvarez, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:275, 31 July 2020

Malaria can be transmitted by blood transfusion through donations collected from asymptomatic donors. Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) poses a great risk to blood services worldwide. A good screening tool for Plasmodium spp. detection in blood banks must have a high sensitivity for prevention of TTM. However, in Brazilian blood banks, screening for malaria still relies on microscopy.

Quantifying and preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrences in primaquine-untreated pregnant women: An observational and modeling study in Brazil

August 4, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corder RM, de Lima ACP, Khoury DS, Docken SS, Davenport MP, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0008526

Each year, 4.3 million pregnant women are exposed to malaria risk in Latin America and the Caribbean. Plasmodium vivax causes 76% of the regional malaria burden and appears to be less affected than P. falciparum by current elimination efforts. This is in part due to the parasite's ability to stay dormant in the liver and originate relapses within months after a single mosquito inoculation. Primaquine (PQ) is routinely combined with chloroquine (CQ) or other schizontocidal drugs to supress P. vivax relapses and reduce the risk of late blood-stage recrudescences of parasites with low-grade CQ resistance.

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