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China

Low genetic diversity and strong immunogenicity within the apical membrane antigen-1 of Plasmodium ovale spp. imported from Africa to China

June 23, 2020 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lei Y, Shen F, Cheng Y, et al.
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 Jun 17:105591

Malaria is still an important challenge for global public health because of its extensive mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium ovale is mainly distributed in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. it includes two distinct ovale malaria species, which are P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an asexual blood-stage protein which is essential for Plasmodium. Thus far, no study on gene polymorphism and immunogenicity of P. ovale AMA-1 (PoAMA-1) has been conducted. Amplified poama1 gene products from 14 P ovale curtisi samples and 12 P ovale wallikeri samples imported from Africa to Jiangsu Province, China were sequenced and their polymorphisms were analyzed.

NOT Open Access | piggyBac-mediated germline transformation of the malaria mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

June 10, 2020 - 15:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu JG, Qiao L, Zhang JJ, Chen B, He ZB
Reference: 
Insect Sci. 2020 Jun 10

Anopheles sinensis is the most widely distributed species which mainly transmit the Plasmodium vivax malaria in China. Transgenic techniques have been successfully established in many other mosquitoes, but not previously reported in An. sinensis. In this study, the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3‐EGFP afm] and the piggyBac helper plasmid phspBac were coinjected into preblastoderm eggs of An. sinensis, and the progenies were screened for eye EGFP fluorescence using a fluorescence microscope.

Mass intake of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in the present context of the Covid-19 outbreak: Possible consequences in endemic malaria settings

June 8, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mvumbi DM
Reference: 
Medical Hypotheses, Volume 143, October 2020, 109912

In December 2019, a new viral outbreak appeared in central China, in Wuhan province. This coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread within few months over all continents, causing numerous deaths and seriously disrupting both social and economic life.

NOT Open Access | Distribution of CD36 deficiency in different Chinese ethnic groups

June 3, 2020 - 15:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu J, Shao Y, Ding H, Deng J, Xu X, Wang J, Xia W, Santoso S, Ye X, Fu Y
Reference: 
Hum Immunol. 2020 May 30:S0198-8859(20)30316-5

CD36 is a multifunctional receptor in cells that plays a role in important cellular processes including immune regulation. Evidence indicates that mutations in the CD36 gene are associated with malaria. Moreover, studies on the frequency of CD36 deficiency have been conducted in specific provinces of China. However, the frequency of CD36 deficiency may differ among various ethnic populations. In this study, we analyzed the frequency of CD36 deficiency among seven different provinces and minorities in China.

Dose Optimization of Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: Do Blood Concentrations Matter

June 2, 2020 - 09:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ippolito MM, Flexner C
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 31:ciaa691

Clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for the treatment of coronavirus infection-2019 (COVID-19) are moving forward on the heels of conflicting, and sometimes controversial, observational studies out of China and France from the first months of the pandemic.

A review on possible modes of actions of Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine: Repurposing against SAR-COV-2 (COVID 19) pandemic

May 26, 2020 - 07:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tripathy S, Dassarma B, Roy S, Chabalala H, Matsabisa MG
Reference: 
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 May 22:106028

The chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as frontline drugs for treatment and prophylaxis against all types of human malaria worldwide. Since late December 2019, humans have been under threat due to an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19; previously known as 2019-nCoV), since its first reported cases in Wuhan, China [1].

Epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Shandong Province, China, from 2012 to 2017

May 7, 2020 - 11:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yu T, Fu Y, Kong X, Liu X, Yan G, Wang Y
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 May 5;10(1):7568

Shandong Province, China, has been implementing a malaria elimination program. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of malaria imported into Shandong Province between 2012 and 2017 to provide scientific data for the elimination of malaria. In this epidemiological study, we examined the status of malaria in 2012–2017 in Shandong Province, China.

Prevalence of molecular markers associated with drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax isolates in Western Yunnan Province, China

April 27, 2020 - 13:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang X, Ruan W, Zhou S, Feng X, Yan H, Huang F
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 25;20(1):307

Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed malaria parasite, and its drug resistance poses unique challenges to malaria elimination. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is known as the global epicenter of multidrug resistance. Surveillance of molecular markers associated with drug resistance in this area will help to inform drug policy.

Protecting the gains of malaria elimination in China

April 27, 2020 - 13:02 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Feng X, Levens J, Zhou XN
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Apr 24;9(1):43

About half of the world’s population risks contracting malaria, which despite the effective treatments available globally, remains a life-threatening affliction, particularly for the poorest and most vulnerable populations. To raise awareness, advocacy, and action towards defeating the disease, which was responsible for approximately 228 million debilitating infections and 405 000 deaths at last count in 2018, the international community has, since 2008, commemorated World Malaria Day on 25 April.

Tracking progress towards malaria elimination in China: Individual-level estimates of transmission and its spatiotemporal variation using a diffusion network approach

March 24, 2020 - 12:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Routledge I, Lai S, Battle KE, Ghani AC, Gomez-Rodriguez M, Gustafson KB, Mishra S, Unwin J, Proctor JL, Tatem AJ, Li Z, Bhatt S
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol 16(3): e1007707

In order to monitor progress towards malaria elimination, it is crucial to be able to measure changes in spatio-temporal transmission. However, common metrics of malaria transmission such as parasite prevalence are under powered in elimination contexts. China has achieved major reductions in malaria incidence and is on track to eliminate, having reporting zero locally-acquired malaria cases in 2017 and 2018. Understanding the spatio-temporal pattern underlying this decline, especially the relationship between locally-acquired and imported cases, can inform efforts to maintain elimination and prevent re-emergence.

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