Wide-spread implementation of treatment regimens for the radical cure of vivax malaria is hindered by a range of factors. This has resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of vivax malaria and is an important obstacle in the achievement of global malaria elimination by 2030. The main objective of this study was to explore the current policies guiding the treatment plans on vivax malaria, and the factors affecting the implementation of radical cure in South/South East Asian and Asian Pacific countries.
Accumulating evidence suggest that compromised CYP2D6 enzyme activity caused by gene mutation could contribute to primaquine failure for the radical cure of vivax malaria. The current study aims to preliminarily reveal the association between the recurrence of vivax malaria in Yunnan Province and CYP2D6 gene mutation by analysing polymorphisms in the entire coding region of human CYP2D6 gene.
Vivax malaria diagnosis remains a challenge in malaria elimination, with current point of care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) missing many clinically significant infections because of usually lower peripheral parasitaemia. Haemozoin-detecting assays have been suggested as an alternative to immunoassay platforms but to date have not reached successful field deployment. Haemozoin is a paramagnetic crystal by-product of haemoglobin digestion by malaria parasites and is present in the food vacuole of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of a new haemozoin-detecting platform, the Gazelle™ device with optical microscopy, RDT and PCR in a vivax malaria-endemic region.
In recent years, the number of cases with severe Plasmodium vivax malaria has shown an increasing trend. It is, therefore, important to identify routine laboratory markers that best characterize the acute disease phase and can serve as a tool for clinical follow-up of patients. In a cohort study, we followed 87 patients with acute P. vivax monoinfection acquired in an endemic region of the Brazilian Amazon. Forty-two different biochemical and hematological parameters frequently tested in clinical routine were evaluated at the acute phase and the convalescent phase.
Although antibodies are considered critical for malaria protection, little is known about the mechanisms/factors that maintain humoral immunity, especially regarding the induction and maintenance of memory B cells over time. In Brazilian endemic areas, this is the first time that the profile of antibody responses and the occurrence of antigen‐specific memory B cells (MBC) against P vivax were investigated during acute malaria and up to six months after parasite clearance.
Although antibodies are considered critical for malaria protection, little is known about the mechanisms/factors that maintain humoral immunity, especially regarding the induction and maintenance of memory B cells over time. In Brazilian endemic areas, this is the first time that the profile of antibody responses and the occurrence of antigen‐specific memory B‐cells (MBC) against P. vivax were investigated during acute malaria and up to six months after parasite clearance.
We describe this previously unreported association, hypothesize on the potential mechanism and review the literature on singultus and unusual presentations of Plasmodium infections.
Brazil has considerably reduced the number of cases of malaria in recent years and aims to eradicate the disease completely, however, vivax malaria continues to be a major challenge for the health system. In this context, the key to building a successful elimination programme may lie in the knowledge and the perceptions of the health agents, the patients affected by the disease and the personnel responsible for malaria diagnosis, treatment and control at the local level.
Few children received PQ treatment during the second visit to HFs following diagnosis of potential non-falciparum malaria.
The findings support that the intake of PQ during 14 days of treatment against vivax malaria is safe in patients with a class III variant of G6PDd. In view of the new national regulations in the shortened treatment of vivax malaria for 7 days, it is advisable to be alert of potential cases of severe haemolysis that could occur among G6PD deficient hemizygous males with a class II mutation such as the Santamaria variant, previously reported in the country.