A small library of "half-sandwich" cyclopentadienylruthenium(II) compounds of the general formula [(η5-C5R5)Ru(PPh3)(N-N)][PF6], a scaffold hitherto absent from the toolbox of antiplasmodials, was screened for activity against the blood stage of CQ-sensitive 3D7-GFP, CQ-resistant Dd2, and artemisinin-resistant IPC5202 Plasmodium falciparum strains and the liver stage of Plasmodium berghei.
Italy was declared malaria free by the World Health Organization in 1970. Despite this, nonimport malaria cases are on the increase in Italy and throughout the Mediterranean area. In Italy, in the period between 2011 and 2015, seven cases of locally acquired malaria have been reported, including one introduced case of Plasmodium vivax; moreover, the last certain case of introduced malaria (by P. vivax) has been reported in Tuscany in 1997. No case of introduced malaria from Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Italy since 1970.
Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.
PCR can be positive weeks after effective malaria treatment, potentially leading to over diagnose of recrudescence and re-infections. The DNA detected by PCR post-treatment might stem from residuals of destroyed asexual parasites, or from live gametocytes. The objective of this clinical observational study was to describe the presence of positive PCR for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in follow-up samples post-treatment from returned travellers, and the proportion of positive PCR due to gametocytes.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been broadly studied in malaria for nearly a decade. These vesicles carry various functional biomolecules including RNA families such as microRNAs (miRNA). These EVs-derived microRNAs have numerous roles in host-parasite interactions and are considered promising biomarkers for disease severity. However, this field lacks clinical studies of malaria-infected samples. In this study, EV specific miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of patients from Thailand infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, it is postulated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in these groups of patients and had a role in disease onset through the regulation of specific target genes.
JAK/STAT-signaling plays a major role in the pathogenesis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Plasmodium ovale is an understudied malaria species prevalent throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the distribution of ovale malaria and risk factors associated with infection in areas of high malaria endemicity.
Malaria has been for millennia one of the best known and most destructive diseases affecting humans. Its high impact has aroused great interest for the development of new effective and reliable diagnostic techniques. Recently it has been recently published that hairs from mammal hosts are able to capture, hold and finally remove foreign DNA sequences of Leishmania parasites.
The rapid development of parasite drug resistance as well as the lack of medications targeting both the asexual and the sexual blood stages of the malaria parasite necessitate the search for novel antimalarial compounds. Eleven organoarsenic compounds were synthesized and tested for their effect on the asexual blood stages and sexual transmission stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using in vitro assays.
Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016.