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falciparum

Evaluation of the malaria reporting system supported by the District Health Information System 2 in Solomon Islands

October 20, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kinley Wangdi, Haribondu Sarma, John Leaburi, Emma McBryde and Archie C. A. Clements
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:372, 17 October 2020

District Health Information Systems 2 (DHIS2) is used for supporting health information management in 67 countries, including Solomon Islands. However, there have been few published evaluations of the performance of DHIS2-enhanced disease reporting systems, in particular for monitoring infectious diseases such as malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate DHIS2 supported malaria reporting in Solomon Islands and to develop recommendations for improving the system.

Analysis of Plasmodium vivax schizont transcriptomes from field isolates reveals heterogeneity of expression of genes involved in host-parasite interactions

October 8, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Siegel SV, Chappell L, Hostetler JB, Amaratunga C, Suon S, Böhme U, Berriman M, Fairhurst RM, Rayner JC
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 7;10(1):16667

Plasmodium vivax gene regulation remains difficult to study due to the lack of a robust in vitro culture method, low parasite densities in peripheral circulation and asynchronous parasite development. We adapted an RNA-seq protocol "DAFT-seq" to sequence the transcriptome of four P. vivax field isolates that were cultured for a short period ex vivo before using a density gradient for schizont enrichment.

Malaria serology data from the Guiana shield: first insight in IgG antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae antigens in Suriname

October 8, 2020 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mergiory Y. Labadie-Bracho, Farah T. van Genderen and Malti R. Adhin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:360, 8 October 2020

Suriname has accomplished a steep decline in malaria burden, even reaching elimination levels. Plasmodium serology data are not available for Suriname and even extremely scarce within the region, therefore malaria serology testing was introduced, country customized cut-off values were determined and a study was performed to explore the antibody status for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae.

Time for pragmatic, prospective clinical trials to determine the role of empirical antibacterial therapy in critically ill adults hospitalised with malaria

October 6, 2020 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanson J, Nyein PP, Aung NM, Kyi MM
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 2:S1201-9712(20)32188-3

Children with severe falciparum malaria in malaria-endemic regions are predisposed to developing life-threatening bacterial co-infection. International guidelines therefore recommend empirical broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy in these children. Few studies have examined co-infection in adults, although it has been believed to be relatively rare; anti-bacterial therapy is therefore not routinely recommended in adults.

Extensive new Anopheles cryptic species involved in human malaria transmission in western Kenya

October 1, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Wang X, Kibret S, Zhou G, Atieli H, Lee MC, Afrane YA, Githeko AK, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 30;10(1):16139

A thorough understanding of malaria vector species composition and their bionomic characteristics is crucial to devise effective and efficient vector control interventions to reduce malaria transmission. It has been well documented in Africa that malaria interventions in the past decade have resulted in major changes in species composition from endophilic Anopheles gambiae to exophilic An. arabiensis.

NOT Open Access | Treating Severe Malaria

October 1, 2020 - 15:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Berman JD
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 30:ciaa887

In “Concomitant bacteremia in adults with severe falciparum malaria” in this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 9 of 845 Southeast Asian adults with severe malaria (1%) had bacteremia upon admission, but 4 of those 9 patients (44%) died compared with 108 of 836 (13%) nonbacteremic patients.

Not Open Access | Monitoring Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax using microsatellite markers indicates limited changes in population structure after substantial transmission decline in Papua New Guinea

September 30, 2020 - 11:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kattenberg JH, Razook Z, Barry AE, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Sep 28

Monitoring the genetic structure of pathogen populations may be an economical and sensitive approach to quantify the impact of control on transmission dynamics, highlighting the need for a better understanding of changes in population genetic parameters as transmission declines. Here we describe the first population genetic analysis of the major human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) following nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Stratifying malaria receptivity in Bangladesh using archived rapid diagnostic tests

September 24, 2020 - 08:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
André Barembaye Sagna, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Shamsun Naher, Shayla Islam, M. M. Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad Shafiul Alam and Cristian Koepfli
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:345, 23 September 2020

Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resource for in-depth studies on malaria epidemiology.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax strains use alternative pathways for invasion

September 22, 2020 - 10:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kanjee U, Grüring C, Duraisingh MT, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17:jiaa592

Plasmodium vivax has two invasion ligand/host receptor pathways (PvDBP/DARC and PvRBP2b/TfR1) that are promising targets for therapeutic intervention. We optimized invasion assays with isogenic cultured reticulocytes.

Distribution pattern of amino acid mutations in chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance associated genes in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax isolates from Chandigarh, North India

September 16, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaur H, Sehgal R, Kumar A, Bharti PK, Bansal D, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J, Sultan AA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;20(1):671

The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.

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