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falciparum

Predictive performance of rapid diagnostic tests for falciparum malaria and its modelled impact on integrated community case management of malaria in sub-Saharan African febrile children

January 31, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mischlinger J, Dudek V, Ramharter M
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 28:ciaa1942

Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.

The epidemiology and detectability of asymptomatic plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum infections in low, moderate and high transmission settings in Ethiopia

January 27, 2021 - 11:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Elifaged Hailemeskel, Surafel K Tebeje, Fitsum G. Tadesse, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:59, 22 January 2021

As countries move to malaria elimination, detecting and targeting asymptomatic malaria infections might be needed. Here, the epidemiology and detectability of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections were investigated in different transmission settings in Ethiopia.

Past eight-year malaria data in Gedeo zone, southern Ethiopia: trend, reporting-quality, spatiotemporal distribution, and association with socio-demographic and meteorological variables

January 27, 2021 - 11:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Molla E, Behaksra SW, Tadesse FG, Dugassa S, Gadisa E, Mamo H
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 21;21(1):91

Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country’s malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia.

Malaria in Southern Venezuela: The hottest hotspot in Latin America

January 27, 2021 - 10:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Grillet ME, Moreno JE, Hernández-Villena JV, Vincenti-González MF, Noya O, Tami A, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Llewellyn M, Lowe R, Escalante AA, Conn JE
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jan 25;15(1):e0008211

Malaria elimination in Latin America is becoming an elusive goal. Malaria cases reached a historical ~1 million in 2017 and 2018, with Venezuela contributing 53% and 51% of those cases, respectively. Historically, malaria incidence in southern Venezuela has accounted for most of the country's total number of cases. The efficient deployment of disease prevention measures and prediction of disease spread to new regions requires an in-depth understanding of spatial heterogeneity on malaria transmission dynamics. Herein, we characterized the spatial epidemiology of malaria in southern Venezuela from 2007 through 2017 and described the extent to which malaria distribution has changed country-wide over the recent years.

Plasmodium-a brief introduction to the parasites causing human malaria and their basic biology

January 16, 2021 - 09:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sato S
Reference: 
J Physiol Anthropol. 2021 Jan 7;40(1):1

Malaria is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of humans. It is problematic clinically and economically as it prevails in poorer countries and regions, strongly hindering socioeconomic development. The causative agents of malaria are unicellular protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These parasites infect not only humans but also other vertebrates, from reptiles and birds to mammals. To date, over 200 species of Plasmodium have been formally described, and each species infects a certain range of hosts.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

Has COVID19 derailed Bhutan’s national malaria elimination goal? A commentary

January 9, 2021 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kinley Penjor, Tobgyal, Tandin Zangpo, Archie C. A. Clements, Darren J. Gray and Kinley Wangdi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:20, 6 January 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns.

Clinical spectrum and predictors of severe Plasmodium vivax infections at a tertiary care center in North India

January 6, 2021 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Walia D, Arora U, Baitha U, Kumar A, Ranjan P, Soneja M, Verma N, Khan MA, Aggarwal P, Biswas A, Wig N
Reference: 
Drug Discov Ther. 2020 Dec 31

Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapid kits or peripheral smears.

NOT Open Access | Spiro-beta-lactam BSS-730A Displays Potent Activity against HIV and Plasmodium

January 5, 2021 - 15:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bártolo I, Santos BS, Taveira N, et al.
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 4

The high burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS prevents economic and social progress in developing countries. A continuing need exists for development of novel drugs and treatment regimens for both diseases in order to address the tolerability and long-term safety concerns associated with current treatment options and the emergence of drug resistance.

Decreasing trend of imported malaria cases but increasing influx of mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in malaria-free Kuwait

December 16, 2020 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Iqbal J, Al-Awadhi M, Ahmad S
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 11;15(12):e0243617

Malaria still continues to be the most important parasitic disease worldwide, affecting 228 million people and causing 405,000 deaths each year. In this retrospective study during 2013 to 2018, we documented the incidence of imported malaria infection and evaluated the impact of malaria preventive measures in Kuwait, a non-endemic country. The epidemiologic and demographic data of all malaria cases was collected from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait where all suspected cases of malaria are referred for confirmation and therapeutic intervention.

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