Parasite resistance against anti-malarial drugs is a major threat to the ongoing malaria control and elimination strategies.
HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses.
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, which was registered in 2017 in Senegal, is not currently used as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria. A total of 6.6% to 17.1% of P. falciparum isolates collected in Dakar in 2013 to 2015 showed ex vivo-reduced susceptibility to piperaquine.
We evaluated markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum among 254 returned migrant workers in China from Africa from 2013 to 2016.
During the intraerythrocytic asexual cycle malaria parasites acquire nutrients and other solutes through a broad selectivity channel localized at the membrane of the infected erythrocyte termed the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). The protein product of the Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant clag3.1 and clag3.2 genes determines PSAC activity. Switches in the expression of clag3 genes, which are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, are associated with changes in PSAC-dependent permeability that can result in resistance to compounds toxic for the parasite, such as blasticidin S. Here, we investigated whether other antimalarial drugs require CLAG3 to reach their intracellular target and consequently are prone to parasite resistance by epigenetic mechanisms.
The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion and are potential targets in the development of natural immunity. Protein and peptide microarrays populated with RIFINs and STEVORs associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children were probed with adult and pediatric sera to identify epitopes that reflect malaria exposure.
Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the most deadly species of human malaria, and the development of an effective vaccine that prevents P. falciparum infection and transmission is a key target for malarial elimination and eradication programmes. P. falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate. A comparative study was performed to characterize the immune responses in BALB/c mouse immunized with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PfCelTOS (rPfCelTOS) in toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, CpG and Poly I:C alone or in combination (CpG + Poly I:C), followed by the assessment of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of anti-rPfCelTOS antibodies obtained from different vaccine groups in Anopheles stephensi.
We found that AMA1 was a major target of naturally acquired invasion-inhibitory antibodies that were highly prevalent in malaria-endemic populations and showed a high degree of allele specificity. Significantly, the prevalence of inhibitory antibodies to different alleles varied substantially within populations and between geographic locations.
In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended the addition of single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, 0.25 mg base/kg body weight) to artemisinin combination therapies to block the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum without testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Apart from k13, pfarps10, pffd and pfmdr2 are also useful for molecular surveillance of artemisinin resistance especially where k13 mutation has not been reported.