As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy.
As malaria incidence and transmission in a region decreases, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify areas of active transmission. Improved methods for identifying and monitoring foci of active malaria transmission are needed in areas of low parasite prevalence in order to achieve malaria elimination. Serological assays can provide population-level infection history to inform elimination campaigns.
Transdermal immunization exhibits poor immunogenic responses due to poor permeability of antigens through the skin. Elastic liposomes, the ultradeformable nanoscale lipid vesicles, overcome the permeability issues and prove a versatile nanocarrier for transcutaneous delivery of protein, peptide, and nucleic acid antigens. Elastic liposome-mediated subcutaneous delivery of chimeric fusion protein (PfMSP-Fu24) of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited improved immunogenic responses. Elastic liposomes-mediated immunization of PfMSP-Fu24 conferred immunity to the asexual blood-stage infection. Present study is an attempt to compare the protective immune response mounted by the PfMSP-Fu24 upon administered through transdermal and intramuscular routes.
Malaria parasites develop as oocysts in the mosquito for several days before they are able to infect a human host. During this time, mosquitoes take bloodmeals to replenish their nutrient and energy reserves needed for flight and reproduction. We hypothesized that these bloodmeals are critical for oocyst growth and that experimental infection protocols, typically involving a single bloodmeal at the time of infection, cause nutritional stress to the developing oocysts. Therefore, enumerating oocysts disregarding their growth and differentiation state may lead to erroneous conclusions about the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions.
Severe complications have been observed and established for Plasmodium falciparum as well as P. vivax infections worldwide. Although P. vivax infection is not fully acknowledged as malignant malaria, recently life-threatening complications have been reported to occur in many studies. The recognition of biomarkers with excellent sensitivity and reliability plays a prime role in disease management. Acute inflammatory response and oxidative stress are observed in malaria due to the production of reactive oxygen species.
Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, efficient vectors in parts of Asia and Africa, were found in 75.3% of water sources surveyed and contributed to 80.9% of wild-caught Anopheles mosquitoes in Awash Sebat Kilo, Ethiopia.
Fixed-dose combination of artemisinin and naphthoquine (NQ) is a new artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum. NQ absorption has been reported to be affected by food in human.
Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.
As countries move to malaria elimination, detecting and targeting asymptomatic malaria infections might be needed. Here, the epidemiology and detectability of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections were investigated in different transmission settings in Ethiopia.
Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country’s malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia.