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falciparum

Genetic analysis of the orthologous crt and mdr1 genes in Plasmodium malariae from Thailand and Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 10:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yupawadee Pimpat, Naowarat Saralamba, Usa Boonyuen, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Francois Nosten, Frank Smithuis, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:315, 31 August 2020

Plasmodium malariae is a widely spread but neglected human malaria parasite, which causes chronic infections. Studies on genetic polymorphisms of anti-malarial drug target genes in P. malariae are limited. Previous reports have shown polymorphisms in the P. malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance and linked to pyrimethamine drug pressure. This study investigated polymorphisms of the P. malariae homologous genes, chloroquine resistant transporter and multidrug resistant 1, associated with chloroquine and mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

Quantification of Plasmodium knowlesi versus Plasmodium falciparum in the rhesus liver: implications for malaria vaccine studies in rhesus models

September 1, 2020 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Melanie J. Shears, Annette M. Seilie, B. Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L. Hoffman and Sean C. Murphy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:313, 31 August 2020

Rhesus macaques are valuable pre-clinical models for malaria vaccine development. The Plasmodium knowlesi/rhesus and Plasmodium falciparum/rhesus models are two established platforms for malaria vaccine testing, and both have previously been used to assess live-attenuated sporozoite vaccines. However, there is evidence that the susceptibility of the rhesus liver to P. knowlesi versus P. falciparum sporozoites likely differs, potentially complicating comparisons between these two platforms.

Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar

August 27, 2020 - 08:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goupeyou-Youmsi J, Rakotondranaivo T, Puchot N, Peterson I, Girod R, Vigan-Womas I, Paul R, Ndiath MO, Bourgouin C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 26;13(1):430

Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.

NOT Open Access | Half-Sandwich Cyclopentadienylruthenium(II) Complexes: A New Antimalarial Chemotype

August 25, 2020 - 15:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Milheiro SA, Gonçalves J, Moreira R, et al.
Reference: 
Inorg Chem. 2020 Aug 24

A small library of "half-sandwich" cyclopentadienylruthenium(II) compounds of the general formula [(η5-C5R5)Ru(PPh3)(N-N)][PF6], a scaffold hitherto absent from the toolbox of antiplasmodials, was screened for activity against the blood stage of CQ-sensitive 3D7-GFP, CQ-resistant Dd2, and artemisinin-resistant IPC5202 Plasmodium falciparum strains and the liver stage of Plasmodium berghei.

NOT Open Access | A Cluster of Cryptic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in African Migrants in Southern Italy, October 2017

August 25, 2020 - 15:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Brindicci G, Santoro CR, Loconsole D, Martinelli D, Prato R, Lonero G, Loperfido P, Buccoliero GB, Chironna M
Reference: 
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Aug 20

Italy was declared malaria free by the World Health Organization in 1970. Despite this, nonimport malaria cases are on the increase in Italy and throughout the Mediterranean area. In Italy, in the period between 2011 and 2015, seven cases of locally acquired malaria have been reported, including one introduced case of Plasmodium vivax; moreover, the last certain case of introduced malaria (by P. vivax) has been reported in Tuscany in 1997. No case of introduced malaria from Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Italy since 1970.

Not Open Access | Temporal and micro-spatial heterogeneity in transmission dynamics of co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two rural cohort populations in the Peruvian Amazon

August 25, 2020 - 07:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosas-Aguirre A, Guzman-Guzman M, Llanos-Cuentas A, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 21:jiaa526

Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.

Detection of remaining Plasmodium DNA and gametocytes during follow up after curative malaria treatment among returned travellers in Norway

August 19, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christel Gill Haanshuus and Kristine Mørch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:296, 19 August 2020

PCR can be positive weeks after effective malaria treatment, potentially leading to over diagnose of recrudescence and re-infections. The DNA detected by PCR post-treatment might stem from residuals of destroyed asexual parasites, or from live gametocytes. The objective of this clinical observational study was to describe the presence of positive PCR for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in follow-up samples post-treatment from returned travellers, and the proportion of positive PCR due to gametocytes.

The characterization of extracellular vesicles-derived microRNAs in Thai malaria patients

August 11, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nutpakal Ketprasit, Iris Simone Cheng, Fiona Deutsch, Nham Tran, Mallika Imwong, Valery Combes and Duangdao Palasuwan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:285, 10 August 2020

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been broadly studied in malaria for nearly a decade. These vesicles carry various functional biomolecules including RNA families such as microRNAs (miRNA). These EVs-derived microRNAs have numerous roles in host-parasite interactions and are considered promising biomarkers for disease severity. However, this field lacks clinical studies of malaria-infected samples. In this study, EV specific miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of patients from Thailand infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, it is postulated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in these groups of patients and had a role in disease onset through the regulation of specific target genes.

Falciparum malaria-induced secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis successfully treated with ruxolitinib

August 11, 2020 - 07:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fuchs A, Orth HM, Germing U, Kondakci M, Holtfreter M, Feldt T, Jensen BE, Häussinger D
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 7:S1201-9712(20)30626-3

JAK/STAT-signaling plays a major role in the pathogenesis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Not Open Access | Under the Radar: Epidemiology of Plasmodium ovale in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

August 10, 2020 - 15:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mitchell CL, Brazeau NF, Keeler C, Mwandagalirwa MK, Tshefu AK, Juliano JJ, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 7:jiaa478

Plasmodium ovale is an understudied malaria species prevalent throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the distribution of ovale malaria and risk factors associated with infection in areas of high malaria endemicity.

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