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falciparum

Plasmodium-a brief introduction to the parasites causing human malaria and their basic biology

January 16, 2021 - 09:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sato S
Reference: 
J Physiol Anthropol. 2021 Jan 7;40(1):1

Malaria is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of humans. It is problematic clinically and economically as it prevails in poorer countries and regions, strongly hindering socioeconomic development. The causative agents of malaria are unicellular protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These parasites infect not only humans but also other vertebrates, from reptiles and birds to mammals. To date, over 200 species of Plasmodium have been formally described, and each species infects a certain range of hosts.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

Has COVID19 derailed Bhutan’s national malaria elimination goal? A commentary

January 9, 2021 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kinley Penjor, Tobgyal, Tandin Zangpo, Archie C. A. Clements, Darren J. Gray and Kinley Wangdi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:20, 6 January 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns.

Clinical spectrum and predictors of severe Plasmodium vivax infections at a tertiary care center in North India

January 6, 2021 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Walia D, Arora U, Baitha U, Kumar A, Ranjan P, Soneja M, Verma N, Khan MA, Aggarwal P, Biswas A, Wig N
Reference: 
Drug Discov Ther. 2020 Dec 31

Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapid kits or peripheral smears.

NOT Open Access | Spiro-beta-lactam BSS-730A Displays Potent Activity against HIV and Plasmodium

January 5, 2021 - 15:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bártolo I, Santos BS, Taveira N, et al.
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 4

The high burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS prevents economic and social progress in developing countries. A continuing need exists for development of novel drugs and treatment regimens for both diseases in order to address the tolerability and long-term safety concerns associated with current treatment options and the emergence of drug resistance.

Decreasing trend of imported malaria cases but increasing influx of mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in malaria-free Kuwait

December 16, 2020 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Iqbal J, Al-Awadhi M, Ahmad S
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 11;15(12):e0243617

Malaria still continues to be the most important parasitic disease worldwide, affecting 228 million people and causing 405,000 deaths each year. In this retrospective study during 2013 to 2018, we documented the incidence of imported malaria infection and evaluated the impact of malaria preventive measures in Kuwait, a non-endemic country. The epidemiologic and demographic data of all malaria cases was collected from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait where all suspected cases of malaria are referred for confirmation and therapeutic intervention.

Asymptomatic recrudescence after artemether–lumefantrine treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

December 15, 2020 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rida Mumtaz, Lucy C. Okell and Joseph D. Challenger
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:453, 9 December 2020

In clinical trials of therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum, there are usually some patients who fail treatment even in the absence of drug resistance. Treatment failures, which can be due to recrudescence or re-infection, are categorized as ‘clinical’ or ‘parasitological’ failures, the former indicating that symptoms have returned. Asymptomatic recrudescence has public health implications for continued malaria transmission and may be important for the spread of drug-resistant malaria. As the number of recrudescences in an individual trial is often low, it is difficult to assess how commonplace asymptomatic recrudescence is, and with what factors it is associated.

The Key Glycolytic Enzyme Phosphofructokinase Is Involved in Resistance to Antiplasmodial Glycosides

December 10, 2020 - 09:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fisher GM, Cobbold SA, Jezewski A, Carpenter EF, Arnold M, Cowell AN, Tjhin ET, Saliba KJ, Skinner-Adams TS, Lee MCS, Odom John A, Winzeler EA, McConville MJ, Poulsen SA, Andrews KT
Reference: 
mBio. 2020 Dec 8;11(6):e02842-20

Plasmodium parasites rely heavily on glycolysis for ATP production and for precursors for essential anabolic pathways, such as the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we show that mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase (PfPFK9), are associated with in vitro resistance to a primary sulfonamide glycoside (PS-3).

Concomitant Bacteremia in Adults With Severe Falciparum Malaria

December 8, 2020 - 11:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Phu NH, Day NPJ, Tuan PQ, Mai NTH, Chau TTH, Van Chuong L, Vinh H, Loc PP, Sinh DX, Hoa NTT, Waller DJ, Wain J, Jeyapant A, Watson JA, Farrar JJ, Hien TT, Parry CM, White NJ
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):e465-e470

Approximately 6% of children hospitalized with severe falciparum malaria in Africa are also bacteremic. It is therefore recommended that all children with severe malaria should receive broad-spectrum antibiotics in addition to parenteral artesunate. Empirical antibiotics are not recommended currently for adults with severe malaria.

Genomic surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cases at the University Hospital in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

December 3, 2020 - 12:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Valdivia HO, Villena FE, Lizewski SE, Garcia J, Alger J, Bishop DK
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 1;10(1):20975

Malaria continues to be an important health problem in Honduras despite major progress achieved reducing its incidence in the last two decades. In a context of case reduction, continuing surveillance of parasite diversity and drug resistance is an important component to assist effective malaria control strategies and support risk assessments. In this study, we employed next generation sequencing on collected Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum samples from the Hospital Escuela (University Hospital) in Honduras between 2005 and 2017.

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