Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders malaria elimination. Monitoring the molecular markers of drug resistance helps improve malaria treatment policies. This study aimed to assess the distribution of molecular markers of imported Plasmodium falciparum infections.
Tanzania’s Zanzibar archipelago has made significant gains in malaria control over the last decade and is a target for malaria elimination. Despite consistent implementation of effective tools since 2002, elimination has not been achieved. Importation of parasites from outside of the archipelago is thought to be an important cause of malaria’s persistence, but this paradigm has not been studied using modern genetic tools.
Primaquine is an important gametocytocidal drug that is combined with conventional malaria treatment for prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. Primaquine has been administered together on the first or the last day of conventional treatment but the impact of primaquine timing has never been examined. This study aimed to assess safety, efficacy and optimal timing of single full-dose (0.75 mg/kg) primaquine when added to a standard 6-dose regimen of artemether–lumefantrine (AL).
Because clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infection had been noted previously, the clustering of infection was examined at four field sites in West Africa: Dangassa and Dioro in Mali, Gambissara in The Gambia and Madina Fall in Senegal.
The efficient spread of malaria from infected humans to mosquitoes is a major challenge for malaria elimination initiatives. Gametocytes are the only Plasmodium life stage infectious to mosquitoes. Here, we summarize evidence for naturally acquired anti‐gametocyte immunity and the current state of transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Although gametocytes are intra‐erythrocytic when present in infected humans, developing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes may express proteins on the surface of red blood cells that elicit immune responses in naturally exposed individuals.
Although malaria remains one of the major public health threats in inter-tropical areas, there is limited understanding of imported malaria in children by paediatricians and emergency practitioners in non-endemic countries, often resulting in misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. Moreover, classical treatments (atovaquone-proguanil, quinine, mefloquine) are limited either by lengthy treatment courses or by side effects. Since 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of oral artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. The benefits of artenimol–piperaquine in children have been validated in endemic countries but experience remains limited in cases of imported malaria.
Patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are highly conserved enzymes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms with major roles in lipid homeostasis. The genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum encodes four putative PNPLAs with predicted functions during phospholipid degradation.
Studies of the association between malaria in pregnancy (MiP) and malaria during infancy have provided mixed results. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate available evidence on the impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection during pregnancy, and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp), on the risk of clinical malaria or parasitaemia during infancy.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are increasingly being used to address a diverse range of biological and epidemiological questions.
Parasite resistance against anti-malarial drugs is a major threat to the ongoing malaria control and elimination strategies.