Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been broadly studied in malaria for nearly a decade. These vesicles carry various functional biomolecules including RNA families such as microRNAs (miRNA). These EVs-derived microRNAs have numerous roles in host-parasite interactions and are considered promising biomarkers for disease severity. However, this field lacks clinical studies of malaria-infected samples. In this study, EV specific miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of patients from Thailand infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, it is postulated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in these groups of patients and had a role in disease onset through the regulation of specific target genes.
Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016.
Passively collected malaria case data are the foundation for public health decision making. However, because of population-level immunity, infections might not always be sufficiently symptomatic to prompt individuals to seek care. Understanding the proportion of all Plasmodium spp infections expected to be detected by the health system becomes particularly paramount in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the proportion of infections detected and transmission intensity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in several global endemic settings.
Protein-protein interactions (IPP) play an essential role in practically all biological processes, including those related to microorganism invasion of their host cells. It has been found that a broad repertoire of receptor-ligand interactions takes place in the binding interphase with host cells in malaria, these being vital interactions for successful parasite invasion. Several trials have been conducted for elucidating the molecular interface of interactions between some Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigens with receptors on erythrocytes and/or reticulocytes.
Between 1999 and 2008 Russia experienced a flare-up of transmission of vivax malaria following its massive importation with more than 500 autochthonous cases in European Russia, the Moscow region being the most affected. The outbreak waned soon after a decrease in importation in mid-2000s and strengthening the control measures. Compared with other post-eradication epidemics in Europe this one was unprecedented by its extension and duration.
Laboratory detection of malaria antigens has proved valuable for research and epidemiological purposes. We recently developed a bead-based multiplex antigen assay for pan-Plasmodium and Plasmodium falciparum targets. Here, we report integration of a Plasmodium vivax–specific target to this multiplex panel: P. vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH).
Endothelial activation and microvascular dysfunction are key pathogenic processes in severe malaria. We evaluated the early role of these processes in experimentally induced P. falciparum and P. vivax infection.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for increased gender equity and reduction in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with maternal anaemia and increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Providing radical cure for women with 8-aminoquinolines (e.g., primaquine) is hindered by gender-specific complexities.
The efficient spread of malaria from infected humans to mosquitoes is a major challenge for malaria elimination initiatives. Gametocytes are the only Plasmodium life stage infectious to mosquitoes. Here, we summarize evidence for naturally acquired anti‐gametocyte immunity and the current state of transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Although gametocytes are intra‐erythrocytic when present in infected humans, developing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes may express proteins on the surface of red blood cells that elicit immune responses in naturally exposed individuals.
We hypothesized that artificial aberration of the host-pathway by target mutagenesis of either RBC –receptors, may abolish or reduce susceptibility of the host to malaria. As a first step towards the experimental actualization of these concepts, we aimed to identify zinc finger arrays (ZFAs) for constructing ZFNs that target genes of either wild-type host-RBC- receptors.