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vivax

Ultrasensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic for field-applicable detection of Plasmodium species in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria

September 23, 2020 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee RA, Puig H, Nguyen PQ, Angenent-Mari NM, Donghia NM, McGee JP, Dvorin JD, Klapperich CM, Pollock NR, Collins JJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 21:202010196

Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax strains use alternative pathways for invasion

September 22, 2020 - 10:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kanjee U, Grüring C, Duraisingh MT, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17:jiaa592

Plasmodium vivax has two invasion ligand/host receptor pathways (PvDBP/DARC and PvRBP2b/TfR1) that are promising targets for therapeutic intervention. We optimized invasion assays with isogenic cultured reticulocytes.

Distribution pattern of amino acid mutations in chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance associated genes in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax isolates from Chandigarh, North India

September 16, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaur H, Sehgal R, Kumar A, Bharti PK, Bansal D, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J, Sultan AA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;20(1):671

The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.

NOT Open Access | Climate based malaria forecasting system for Andhra Pradesh, India

September 5, 2020 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mopuri R, Kakarla SG, Mutheneni SR, Kadiri MR, Kumaraswamy S
Reference: 
J Parasit Dis. 2020 Sep;44(3):497-510

Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries of the World. During the year 1999, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India experienced a major epidemic of malaria, and nearly 41,805 cases were reported. Hence, a retrospective malaria surveillance study was conducted from 2001 to 2016 and reported nearly a total of 149,317 malaria cases during the study period.

NOT Open Access | Comparision of the various routine diagnostic modalities of malaria and a new method: the Parasight™ platform

September 5, 2020 - 15:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Das S, Rajkumari N, Revathi U, Gururajan A
Reference: 
J Parasit Dis. 2020 Sep;44(3):528-535

Malaria is one of most important parasitic disease, which is still much prevalent in India. The burden of malaria in India is complex and the proportions of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum vary across India, because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors.

Utility of ultra-sensitive qPCR to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections under different transmission intensities

September 5, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Ingrid Felger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:319, 3 September 2020

The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.

Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar

August 27, 2020 - 08:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goupeyou-Youmsi J, Rakotondranaivo T, Puchot N, Peterson I, Girod R, Vigan-Womas I, Paul R, Ndiath MO, Bourgouin C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 26;13(1):430

Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.

NOT Open Access | A Cluster of Cryptic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in African Migrants in Southern Italy, October 2017

August 25, 2020 - 15:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Brindicci G, Santoro CR, Loconsole D, Martinelli D, Prato R, Lonero G, Loperfido P, Buccoliero GB, Chironna M
Reference: 
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Aug 20

Italy was declared malaria free by the World Health Organization in 1970. Despite this, nonimport malaria cases are on the increase in Italy and throughout the Mediterranean area. In Italy, in the period between 2011 and 2015, seven cases of locally acquired malaria have been reported, including one introduced case of Plasmodium vivax; moreover, the last certain case of introduced malaria (by P. vivax) has been reported in Tuscany in 1997. No case of introduced malaria from Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Italy since 1970.

Not Open Access | Temporal and micro-spatial heterogeneity in transmission dynamics of co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two rural cohort populations in the Peruvian Amazon

August 25, 2020 - 07:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosas-Aguirre A, Guzman-Guzman M, Llanos-Cuentas A, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 21:jiaa526

Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.

Detection of remaining Plasmodium DNA and gametocytes during follow up after curative malaria treatment among returned travellers in Norway

August 19, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christel Gill Haanshuus and Kristine Mørch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:296, 19 August 2020

PCR can be positive weeks after effective malaria treatment, potentially leading to over diagnose of recrudescence and re-infections. The DNA detected by PCR post-treatment might stem from residuals of destroyed asexual parasites, or from live gametocytes. The objective of this clinical observational study was to describe the presence of positive PCR for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in follow-up samples post-treatment from returned travellers, and the proportion of positive PCR due to gametocytes.

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