The phenomenon of relapsing malaria has been recognised for centuries. It is caused in humans by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, which can arrest growth at an early, asymptomatic stage as hypnozoites inside liver cells. These dormant parasites can remain quiescent for months or years, then reactivate causing symptomatic malaria.
Plasmodial transketolase (PTKT) enzyme is one of the novel pharmacological targets being explored as potential anti-malarial drug target due to its functional role and low sequence identity to the human enzyme. Despite this, features contributing to such have not been exploited for anti-malarial drug design. Additionally, there are no anti-malarial drugs targeting PTKTs whereas the broad activity of these inhibitors against PTKTs from other Plasmodium spp. is yet to be reported. This study characterises different PTKTs [Plasmodium falciparum (PfTKT), Plasmodium vivax (PvTKT), Plasmodium ovale (PoTKT), Plasmodium malariae (PmTKT) and Plasmodium knowlesi (PkTKT) and the human homolog (HsTKT)] to identify key sequence and structural based differences as well as the identification of selective potential inhibitors against PTKTs.
There is a high risk of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia following treatment of falciparum malaria. Our study aimed to quantify this risk and the associated determinants using an individual patient data meta-analysis in order to identify populations in which a policy of universal radical cure, combining artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with a hypnozoitocidal antimalarial drug, would be beneficial.
Automated detection of malaria and dengue infection has been actively researched for more than two decades. Although many improvements have been achieved, these solutions remain too expensive for most laboratories and clinics in developing countries. The low range HORIBA Medical Haematology Analyzer, Yumizen H550, now provides dedicated flags ‘vivax malaria’ and ‘dengue fever’ in routine blood testing, developed through machine learning methods, to be used as a screening tool for malaria and dengue fever in endemic areas. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of these flags under real clinical conditions.
The distribution of malaria infections is heterogeneous in space and time, especially in low transmission settings. Understanding this clustering may allow identification and targeting of pockets of transmission. In Adama district, Ethiopia, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria patients and controls were examined, together with household members and immediate neighbors.
Research on erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax merozoite antigens is critical for identifying potential vaccine candidates in reducing vivax disease. However, many P. vivax studies are constrained by its inability to undergo long-term culture in vitro Conserved across all Plasmodium spp, merozoite surface proteins are essential for invasion into erythrocytes and highly expressed on erythrocytic merozoites, thus making it an ideal vaccine candidate.
To achieve malaria elimination, it is important to determine the role of human mobility in parasite transmission maintenance. The Alto Juruá basin (Brazil) exhibits one of the largest vivax and falciparum malaria prevalence in the Amazon. The goal of this study was to estimate the contribution of human commutes to malaria persistence in this region, using data from an origin-destination survey.
Characteristic fever patterns of malarial infection are clues for diagnosis. However, checking fever patterns in febrile patients has been usually missed, and unnecessary tests have been performed. We reviewed electrical medical record to check whether history-taking included questions on fever pattern in febrile patients.
Malaria remains a significant public health concern in Indonesia. Knowledge about spatial patterns of the residual malaria hotspots is critical to help design elimination strategies in Kotabaru district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) is a focus of malaria elimination. It is important because P vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection are co‐endemic in some areas. There are asymptomatic carriers of P vivax, and the treatment for P vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria differs from that used in other types of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) will help distinguish P vivax from other malaria species to help treatment and elimination. There are RDTs available that detect P vivax parasitaemia through the detection of P vivax‐specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens.