Malaria elimination in Latin America is becoming an elusive goal. Malaria cases reached a historical ~1 million in 2017 and 2018, with Venezuela contributing 53% and 51% of those cases, respectively. Historically, malaria incidence in southern Venezuela has accounted for most of the country's total number of cases. The efficient deployment of disease prevention measures and prediction of disease spread to new regions requires an in-depth understanding of spatial heterogeneity on malaria transmission dynamics. Herein, we characterized the spatial epidemiology of malaria in southern Venezuela from 2007 through 2017 and described the extent to which malaria distribution has changed country-wide over the recent years.
Sporozoites of the malaria parasite Plasmodium are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect the liver for an initial and obligatory round of replication, before exponential multiplication in the blood and onset of the disease. Sporozoites and liver stages provide attractive targets for malaria vaccines and prophylactic drugs. In this context, defining the parasite proteome is important to explore the parasite biology and to identify potential targets for antimalarial strategies. Previous studies have determined the total proteome of sporozoites from the two main human malaria parasites, P. falciparum and P. vivax, as well as P. yoelii, which infects rodents.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns.
Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapid kits or peripheral smears.
A century long history in 8-aminoquinolines, the only anti-malaria drug class preventing malaria relapse, has resulted in the approval of tafenoquine by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and to date registration in Brazil and Thailand. Tafenoquine is an alternative anti-relapse treatment for vivax malaria and malaria prophylaxis. It should not be given in pregnancy, during lactation of infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) unknown or deficient status, and in those with G6PD deficiency or psychiatric illness.
Plasmodium ovale is a benign tertian malaria parasite that morphologically resembles Plasmodium vivax. P. ovale also shares similar tertian periodicity and can cause relapse in patients without a radical cure, making it easily misidentified as P. vivax in routine diagnosis. Therefore, its prevalence might be underreported worldwide. The present study aimed to quantify the prevalence of P. ovale misidentified as P. vivax malaria using data from studies reporting confirmed P. ovale cases by molecular methods. Studies reporting the misidentification of P. ovale as P.
Malaria still continues to be the most important parasitic disease worldwide, affecting 228 million people and causing 405,000 deaths each year. In this retrospective study during 2013 to 2018, we documented the incidence of imported malaria infection and evaluated the impact of malaria preventive measures in Kuwait, a non-endemic country. The epidemiologic and demographic data of all malaria cases was collected from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait where all suspected cases of malaria are referred for confirmation and therapeutic intervention.
Since the malaria elimination program was launched in China in 2010, the number of local infections has declined from 4,262 in 2010 to none in 2017, indicating remarkable achievements for prevention and treatment (Zhang et al. 2018). Shandong Province is a malaria‐endemic area, and vivax malaria is prevalent throughout the province.
Malaria continues to be an important health problem in Honduras despite major progress achieved reducing its incidence in the last two decades. In a context of case reduction, continuing surveillance of parasite diversity and drug resistance is an important component to assist effective malaria control strategies and support risk assessments. In this study, we employed next generation sequencing on collected Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum samples from the Hospital Escuela (University Hospital) in Honduras between 2005 and 2017.
In a cross-sectional molecular study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 78% of households had at least one member infected with Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, and/or ovale spp. 47% of children and 33% of adults tested positive for at least one species.