The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.
Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries of the World. During the year 1999, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India experienced a major epidemic of malaria, and nearly 41,805 cases were reported. Hence, a retrospective malaria surveillance study was conducted from 2001 to 2016 and reported nearly a total of 149,317 malaria cases during the study period.
Malaria is one of most important parasitic disease, which is still much prevalent in India. The burden of malaria in India is complex and the proportions of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum vary across India, because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors.
The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.
Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.
Italy was declared malaria free by the World Health Organization in 1970. Despite this, nonimport malaria cases are on the increase in Italy and throughout the Mediterranean area. In Italy, in the period between 2011 and 2015, seven cases of locally acquired malaria have been reported, including one introduced case of Plasmodium vivax; moreover, the last certain case of introduced malaria (by P. vivax) has been reported in Tuscany in 1997. No case of introduced malaria from Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Italy since 1970.
Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.
PCR can be positive weeks after effective malaria treatment, potentially leading to over diagnose of recrudescence and re-infections. The DNA detected by PCR post-treatment might stem from residuals of destroyed asexual parasites, or from live gametocytes. The objective of this clinical observational study was to describe the presence of positive PCR for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in follow-up samples post-treatment from returned travellers, and the proportion of positive PCR due to gametocytes.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been broadly studied in malaria for nearly a decade. These vesicles carry various functional biomolecules including RNA families such as microRNAs (miRNA). These EVs-derived microRNAs have numerous roles in host-parasite interactions and are considered promising biomarkers for disease severity. However, this field lacks clinical studies of malaria-infected samples. In this study, EV specific miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of patients from Thailand infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, it is postulated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in these groups of patients and had a role in disease onset through the regulation of specific target genes.
Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016.