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Activity of Plasmodium vivax promoter elements in Plasmodium knowlesi, and a centromere-containing plasmid that expresses NanoLuc throughout the parasite life cycle

June 9, 2021 - 07:38 -- Open Access
Roberto R. Moraes Barros, Kittisak Thawnashom, Thomas E. Wellems, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:247, 5 June 2021

Plasmodium knowlesi is now the major cause of human malaria in Malaysia, complicating malaria control efforts that must attend to the elimination of multiple Plasmodium species. Recent advances in the cultivation of P. knowlesi erythrocytic-stage parasites in vitro, transformation with exogenous DNA, and infection of mosquitoes with gametocytes from culture have opened up studies of this pathogen without the need for resource-intensive and costly non-human primate (NHP) models. For further understanding and development of methods for parasite transformation in malaria research, this study examined the activity of various trans-species transcriptional control sequences and the influence of Plasmodium vivax centromeric (pvcen) repeats in plasmid-transfected P. knowlesi parasites.

Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in experimental human malaria to identify organ-specific changes in morphology and glucose metabolism: A prospective cohort study

June 1, 2021 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Woodford J, Gillman A, Jenvey P, Roberts J, Woolley S, Barber BE, Fernandez M, Rose S, Thomas P, Anstey NM, McCarthy JS
PLoS Med. 2021 May 26;18(5):e1003567

Plasmodium vivax has been proposed to infect and replicate in the human spleen and bone marrow. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum, which is known to undergo microvascular tissue sequestration, little is known about the behavior of P. vivax outside of the circulating compartment. This may be due in part to difficulties in studying parasite location and activity in life.

Community-based molecular and serological surveillance of subclinical malaria in Myanmar

June 1, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
O'Flaherty K, Oo WH, Fowkes FJI, et al.
BMC Med. 2021 May 28;19(1):121

In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), current malaria surveillance strategies rely on a network of village health volunteers (VHVs) reporting the results of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), known to miss many asymptomatic infections. Integration of more sensitive diagnostic molecular and serological measures into the VHV network may improve surveillance of residual malaria transmission in hard-to-reach areas in the region and inform targeted interventions and elimination responses. However, data on residual malaria transmission that would be captured by these measures in the VHV-led testing and treatment surveillance network in the GMS is unknown.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes for identifying P. vivax and P. ovale species and mitochondrial DNA for detecting the genus Plasmodium

May 26, 2021 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Chen X, Zhang J, Yang Z, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 24;14(1):278

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It is known that persons infected with Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale are prone to clinical relapse of symptomatic blood-stage infections. LAMP has not previously been specifically evaluated for its diagnostic performance in detecting P. ovale in an epidemiological study, and no commercial LAMP or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits are available for specifically diagnosing infections with P. ovale.

Multicopy targets for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum detection by colorimetric LAMP

May 26, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Oscar Nolasco, Jhoel Montoya, Ana L. Rosales Rosas, Scarlett Barrientos, Anna Rosanas-Urgell and Dionicia Gamboa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:225, 19 May 2021

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for malaria diagnosis at the point of care (POC) depends on the detection capacity of synthesized nucleic acids and the specificity of the amplification target. To improve malaria diagnosis, new colorimetric LAMP tests were developed using multicopy targets for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum detection.

Endothelial glycocalyx degradation and disease severity in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

May 12, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Barber BE, Grigg MJ, Piera KA, Chen Y, William T, Weinberg JB, Yeo TW, Anstey NM
Sci Rep. 2021 May 7;11(1):9741

Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx is associated with mortality in adult falciparum malaria. However, its role in the pathogenesis of non-falciparum malaria is unknown. In Malaysian patients with knowlesi (n = 200) and vivax (n = 61) malaria, and in healthy controls (n = 50), we measured glycocalyx breakdown products plasma syndecan-1 and urinary glycosaminoglycans, and evaluated correlations with biomarkers of disease severity. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were increased in patients with knowlesi and vivax malaria compared to healthy controls, and in knowlesi malaria were highest in those with severe disease.

Recent Molecular Assessment of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Infections in Botswana

May 5, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Motshoge T, Haiyambo DH, Quaye IK, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 May 3:tpmd210083

In 2016, we reported the presence of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana through active case detection. A real-time PCR was used during a similar study in 10 districts to assess changes in the P. vivax prevalence. We assessed 1,614 children (2-13 years of age) for hemoglobin (Hb; g/dL) and Plasmodium parasites. The median age of all participants was 5.0 years (25th percentile, 3 years; 75th percentile, 8 years).

Falciparum but not vivax malaria increases the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in women followed prospectively from the first trimester

April 29, 2021 - 08:11 -- Open Access
Harrington WE, Moore KA, McGready R, et al.
BMC Med. 2021 Apr 27;19(1):98

Malaria and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDoP) affect millions of pregnancies worldwide, particularly those of young, first-time mothers. Small case-control studies suggest a positive association between falciparum malaria and risk of pre-eclampsia but large prospective analyses are lacking.

Taking on Plasmodium vivax malaria: A timely and important challenge

April 29, 2021 - 07:53 -- Open Access
von Seidlein L, White NJ
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003593

Historically, Plasmodium vivax has persisted in the shadow of the more prominent Plasmodium falciparum. Up until 2013, P. vivax malaria was little more than a footnote in WHO reports, with P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria-attributable morbidity and mortality not disaggregated by malaria species.

The prevention and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria

April 28, 2021 - 14:31 -- Open Access
Chu CS, White NJ
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003561

Plasmodium vivax is more geographically dispersed than Plasmodium falciparum, with transmission occurring over a wider range of temperatures than for P. falciparum, and at latitudes as far as 64° North.


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