In Brazil malaria is most frequent in the Amazon region, mainly in the Amazonas state, where it is found the most proportion of indigenous people of the whole country. It is remarkable publications about malaria in the Amazon, although information on malaria in indigenous populations is still poorly explored.
District Health Information Systems 2 (DHIS2) is used for supporting health information management in 67 countries, including Solomon Islands. However, there have been few published evaluations of the performance of DHIS2-enhanced disease reporting systems, in particular for monitoring infectious diseases such as malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate DHIS2 supported malaria reporting in Solomon Islands and to develop recommendations for improving the system.
Plasmodium vivax gene regulation remains difficult to study due to the lack of a robust in vitro culture method, low parasite densities in peripheral circulation and asynchronous parasite development. We adapted an RNA-seq protocol "DAFT-seq" to sequence the transcriptome of four P. vivax field isolates that were cultured for a short period ex vivo before using a density gradient for schizont enrichment.
Suriname has accomplished a steep decline in malaria burden, even reaching elimination levels. Plasmodium serology data are not available for Suriname and even extremely scarce within the region, therefore malaria serology testing was introduced, country customized cut-off values were determined and a study was performed to explore the antibody status for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae.
Monitoring the genetic structure of pathogen populations may be an economical and sensitive approach to quantify the impact of control on transmission dynamics, highlighting the need for a better understanding of changes in population genetic parameters as transmission declines. Here we describe the first population genetic analysis of the major human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) following nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resource for in-depth studies on malaria epidemiology.
Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.
Plasmodium vivax has two invasion ligand/host receptor pathways (PvDBP/DARC and PvRBP2b/TfR1) that are promising targets for therapeutic intervention. We optimized invasion assays with isogenic cultured reticulocytes.
The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.
Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries of the World. During the year 1999, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India experienced a major epidemic of malaria, and nearly 41,805 cases were reported. Hence, a retrospective malaria surveillance study was conducted from 2001 to 2016 and reported nearly a total of 149,317 malaria cases during the study period.