Invasion of Plasmodium into the red blood cell involves the interactions of a substantial number of proteins, with red cell membrane proteins as the most involved throughout the process from entry to exit. The objective of this work was to identify proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane capable of generating an antigenic response to P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, with the goal of searching for new molecular targets of interest with an immunological origin to prevent Plasmodium infection.
The global spread of sulfadoxine (Sdx, S) and pyrimethamine (Pyr, P) resistance is attributed to increasing number of mutations in DHPS and DHFR enzymes encoded by malaria parasites. The association between drug resistance mutations and SP efficacy is complex. Here we provide an overview of the geographical spread of SP resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) encoded dhps and dhfr genes.
Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (API) that occurs during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirths, abortion, premature delivery, and low birth weight. API also hinders the control and prevention of malaria as infected hosts serve as silent reservoirs for transmission of Plasmodium species in the community.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of API and associated factors among pregnant women. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia among 364 pregnant women from March to September 2018.
Malaria is an infectious disease reported mostly in the tropical region. The most severe human malaria is Plasmodium falciparum since it can cause cerebral malaria. Therefore, the presence of P.falciparum either in single or mixed infection needs accurate diagnosis. In some mixed infections, the presence of P.falciparum may be cryptic which cannot be detected by microscopic examination.
As countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) increasingly focus their malaria control and elimination efforts on reducing forest-related transmission, greater understanding of the relationship between deforestation and malaria incidence will be essential for programs to assess and meet their 2030 elimination goals. Leveraging village-level health facility surveillance data and forest cover data in a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we found evidence that deforestation is associated with short-term increases, but long-term decreases in confirmed malaria case incidence in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).
In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vector-borne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Plasmodium vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) allele diversity.
Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru.
As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy.
As malaria incidence and transmission in a region decreases, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify areas of active transmission. Improved methods for identifying and monitoring foci of active malaria transmission are needed in areas of low parasite prevalence in order to achieve malaria elimination. Serological assays can provide population-level infection history to inform elimination campaigns.
Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes.