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Usability of a point-of-care diagnostic to identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a multi-country assessment of test label comprehension and results interpretation

July 14, 2021 - 10:58 -- Open Access
Emily Gerth-Guyette, Wondimagegn Adissu, Gonzalo J. Domingo, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:307, 8 July 2021

Point-of-care glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing has the potential to make the use of radical treatment for vivax malaria safer and more effective. Widespread use of G6PD tests as part of malaria case management has been limited, in part due to due concerns regarding product usability, user training, and supervision. This study seeks to assess how well end users can understand the Standard™ G6PD Test (SD Biosensor, Suwon, South Korea) workflow, result output, and label after training. This will ultimately help inform test registration and introduction.

NOT Open Access | Occurrence and Distribution of Non-falciparum Malaria Parasite Species among Adolescents and Adults in Malawi

July 14, 2021 - 10:39 -- NOT Open Access
Gumbo A, Topazian HM, Juliano JJ, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 9:jiab353

Plasmodium falciparum malaria dominates throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but the prevalence of P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax increasingly contribute to infection in countries which control malaria using P. falciparum-specific diagnostic and treatment strategies.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the combination of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy for imported malaria surveillance in Anhui Province, China

July 14, 2021 - 10:18 -- NOT Open Access
Li W, Zhang X, Feng J, Zhang T, Xu X, Jiang J, Wang S, Lyu X, Li S, Lu M
Acta Trop. 2021 Jul 9:106042

In the Anhui Province, China, efforts to interrupt the local malaria transmission were successful, with no endemic cases reported since 2014. Contrastingly, imported malaria cases are still being reported, indicating a disease reintroduction risk after years of elimination. A good surveillance system is key for avoiding the risk, detecting imported cases and possible cases associated with local transmission early. Therefore, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were combined with microscopy to strengthen malaria surveillance in the province. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this surveillance strategy.

The Pan African Vivax and Ovale Network (PAVON): Refocusing on Plasmodium vivax, ovale and asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

July 6, 2021 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Quaye IK, Aleksenko L, Greco B, et al.
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 30:102415

The recent World Malaria report shows that progress in malaria elimination has stalled. Current data acquisition by NMCPs depend on passive case detection and clinical reports focused mainly on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). In recent times, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reported cases of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) with a considerable number being Duffy negative.

Relapse of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria with and without primaquine treatment in a non-endemic area

July 6, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Wångdahl A, Sondén K, Wyss K, Stenström C, Björklund D, Zhang J, Hervius Askling H, Carlander C, Hellgren U, Färnert A
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 3:ciab610

The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.

Using Plasmodium knowlesi as a model for screening Plasmodium vivax blood-stage malaria vaccine targets reveals new candidates

July 6, 2021 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Ndegwa DN, Kundu P, Hostetler JB, Marin-Menendez A, Sanderson T, Mwikali K, Verzier LH, Coyle R, Adjalley S, Rayner JC
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Jul 1;17(7):e1008864

Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases outside Africa. Unlike P. falciparum, the P. vivax life-cycle includes a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can cause infection in the absence of mosquito transmission. An effective vaccine against P. vivax blood stages would limit symptoms and pathology from such recurrent infections, and therefore could play a critical role in the control of this species. Vaccine development in P. vivax, however, lags considerably behind P. falciparum, which has many identified targets with several having transitioned to Phase II testing.

Malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude, and practice among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

July 6, 2021 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Belay B, Gelana T, Gebresilassie A
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2021 Jul 5;7(1):20

Ethiopia has achieved considerable progresses in the prevention and control of malaria in the past decades; hitherto it is a formidable health concern and socio-economic impediment. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, northwest Ethiopia.

NOT Open Access | Advanced Lyophilised Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (L-LAMP) based point of care technique for the detection of dengue virus

July 6, 2021 - 13:51 -- NOT Open Access
Sandeep Kumar, Supriya Sharma, Nitin Bhardwaj, Veena Pande, Deepali Savargaonkar and Anupkumar R.Anvikar
J Virol Methods. 2021 Jul;293:114168

Dengue virus infects millions of the people globally each year and its diagnosis remains a challenge. Conventionally used diagnostic methods are complex and time consuming. LAMP technique is a potential alternative for diagnosis of dengue virus. The benefits of LAMP are its ease and ability, as it does not require an expensive equipment and results are effortlessly visualized by the naked eye. However, it does not aid as point of care technique owing to need of contamination free area, deep freezer for chemical storage and primer self amplification.

Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic vaccines

June 30, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Reyes-Sandoval A
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 21;84:102411

An estimated 229 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2019. Both, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for most of the malaria disease burden in the world. Despite difficulties in obtaining an accurate number, the global estimates of cases in 2019 are approximately 229 million of which 2.8% are due to P. vivax, and the total number of malaria deaths are approximately 409 million.

Mapping the substrate specificity of the Plasmodium M1 and M17 aminopeptidases

June 23, 2021 - 13:27 -- Open Access
Malcolm TR, Swiderska KW, Hayes BK, Webb CT, Drag M, Drinkwater N, McGowan S
Biochem J. 2021 Jun 16:BCJ20210172

During malarial infection, Plasmodium parasites digest human hemoglobin to obtain free amino acids for protein production and maintenance of osmotic pressure. The Plasmodium M1 and M17 aminopeptidases are both postulated to have an essential role in the terminal stages of the hemoglobin digestion process and are validated drug targets for the design of new dual-target anti-malarial compounds.


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