The capacity of the field staff to conduct activities related to disease surveillance, case management, and vector control has been one of the key components for successfully achieving malaria elimination. India has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030, and it has placed significance on monitoring and evaluation at the district level as one of the key strategies in its national framework. To support and guide the country’s malaria elimination objectives, the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project was conducted in the tribal district of Mandla, Madhya Pradesh. Robust monitoring of human resources received special attention to help the national programme formulate a strategy to plug the gaps in its supply chain and monitoring and evaluation systems.
Information on the foci of Plasmodium species infections is essential for any country heading towards elimination. Odisha, one of the malaria-endemic states of India is targeting elimination of malaria by 2030. To support decision-making regarding targeted intervention, the distribution of Plasmodium species infections was investigated in hard-to-reach areas where a special malaria elimination drive, namely Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) began in 2017.
A detailed analysis of household and individual level Plasmodium infection patterns in two low-endemic districts of Meghalaya was undertaken to better understand the epidemiology of malaria in northeast India.
In an urban setting, it is a difficult task to collect adult Anopheles stephensi, unlike the immature stages, due to various reasons. A longitudinal study was undertaken from January 2016 to April 2017, with CDC light traps to collect adult Anopheles stephensi and other mosquito species in houses located in a few slums of Chennai, India. A total of 203 trap collections were made indoors from human dwellings having different roof types, as well as outdoors. Three to four trap collections were made at night (18:00 to 06:00 h) once a week.
Malaria is endemic in many states of India. Though there are reports of maternal and congenital malaria from endemic areas, however there remains paucity of data from hilly terrains. The present study evaluated the prevalence, clinical and microbiological spectrum of maternal and congenital malaria at a tertiary health care facility in Northern India over a period of 18 months.
Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the community practised having one large underground tank (locally known as the tanka) in their house to collect rainwater for long-term household use. Anopheles stephensi, one of the major malaria vectors, breeds in improperly covered "tankas” if not properly covered and harbours a vector population throughout the year.
India and sub-Saharan Africa contributes about 85% of the global malaria burden, and India is committed to eliminating malaria by 2030.
Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for vector control activities. The present study investigates the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and explores the role of two main mechanisms in conferring resistance target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance.
Plasmodium vivax, a major contributor to the malaria burden in India, has the broadest geographic distribution and shows higher genetic diversity than P. falciparum. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity of two leading P. vivax vaccine candidate antigens, at three geographically diverse malaria-endemic regions in India. Pvama1 and Pvmsp119 partial coding sequences were generated from one hundred P. vivax isolates in India (Chennai n = 28, Nadiad n = 50 and Rourkela n = 22) and ~1100 published sequences from Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania regions included.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe forms of P. falciparum infection, with an associated high case-fatality rate. Angiopoietins (ANG-1 and ANG-2) are important biomarkers of endothelial activation and dysfunction. This study was carried out in Maharani Hospital and associated Medical College, Jagdalpur, CG, Central India from 2010 to 2014. Based on the treatment recovery patterns, cases (n = 65) were classified as mild malaria with rapid recovery (MM-RR), n= 14; non-cerebral severe malaria with moderately fast recovery (NCSM-MFR), n= 9; CM survivors with slow recovery (CMS-SR), n= 36 and deteriorated CM non-survivors (Det-CMNS), n= 6.