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India

NOT Open Access | Analysis of the insecticide resistance mechanism in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato from a malaria-endemic state in India

August 25, 2021 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kareemi TI, Mishra AK, Chand SK, Nirankar JK, Vishwakarma AK, Tiwari A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:trab110

Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for vector control activities. The present study investigates the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and explores the role of two main mechanisms in conferring resistance target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance.

Genetic diversity in two leading Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates AMA1 and MSP119 at three sites in India

August 10, 2021 - 18:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kale S, Pande V, Singh OP, Carlton JM, Mallick PK
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Aug 9;15(8):e0009652

Plasmodium vivax, a major contributor to the malaria burden in India, has the broadest geographic distribution and shows higher genetic diversity than P. falciparum. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity of two leading P. vivax vaccine candidate antigens, at three geographically diverse malaria-endemic regions in India. Pvama1 and Pvmsp119 partial coding sequences were generated from one hundred P. vivax isolates in India (Chennai n = 28, Nadiad n = 50 and Rourkela n = 22) and ~1100 published sequences from Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania regions included.

NOT Open Access | Sequential dysregulated plasma levels of angiopoietins (ANG-2 and ratios of ANG-2/ANG-1) are associated with malaria severity and mortality among hospital admitted cases in South Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh, Central India

July 28, 2021 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jain V, Thomas T, Basak S, Sharma RK, Singh N
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Jul 26:1-12

Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe forms of P. falciparum infection, with an associated high case-fatality rate. Angiopoietins (ANG-1 and ANG-2) are important biomarkers of endothelial activation and dysfunction. This study was carried out in Maharani Hospital and associated Medical College, Jagdalpur, CG, Central India from 2010 to 2014. Based on the treatment recovery patterns, cases (n = 65) were classified as mild malaria with rapid recovery (MM-RR), n= 14; non-cerebral severe malaria with moderately fast recovery (NCSM-MFR), n= 9; CM survivors with slow recovery (CMS-SR), n= 36 and deteriorated CM non-survivors (Det-CMNS), n= 6.

Socio-economic and household determinants of malaria in adults aged 45 and above: analysis of longitudinal ageing survey in India, 2017–2018

July 14, 2021 - 10:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Indumathi Mohan, Naveen Kumar Kodali, Savitha Chellappan, Balasubramani Karuppusamy, Sujit Kumar Behera, Gopalan Natarajan and Praveen Balabaskaran Nina
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:306, 7 July 2021

Even though malaria cases have drastically come down in the last decade, malaria remains a serious public health concern in many parts of India. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016–2030) has been launched with the goal to eliminate malaria by 2030. Understanding the socio-economic and household determinants of malaria at the national level will greatly aid India’s malaria elimination efforts.

Not Open Access | Defeating malaria in the North-East region: the forerunner for malaria elimination in India

July 14, 2021 - 10:55 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Dev V, Manguin S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jul 9:106040

India is a malaria endemic country which is targeting malaria elimination by 2027. Transmission intensities are low-to-moderate depending on the region supported by multiple disease vectors. Among these, comparatively North-East India contributes to high proportions of malaria cases annually, the majority of which are due to Plasmodium falciparum (90%). Anopheles minimus and An. baimaii (sibling species in the An. dirus complex) are widely prevalent and incriminated as vectors of malaria.

NOT Open Access | Hemocyte RNA-Seq analysis of Indian malarial vectors Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies: from similarities to differences

July 6, 2021 - 13:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rani J, Chauhan C, Das De T, Kumari S, Sharma P, Tevatiya S, Patel K, Mishra AK, Pandey KC, Singh N, Dixit R
Reference: 
Gene. 2021 Jul 2:145810

Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are dominant malarial vectors in urban and rural India, respectively. Both species carry significant biological differences in their behavioral adaptation and immunity, but the genetic basis of these variations are still poorly understood. Here, we uncovered the genetic differences of immune blood cells, that influence several immune-physiological responses. We generated, analyzed and compared the hemocyte RNA-Seq database of both mosquitoes. A total of 5,837,223,769 assembled bases collapsed into 7,595 and 3,791 transcripts, originating from hemocytes of laboratory-reared 3-4 days old naïve (sugar-fed) mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies respectively.

NOT Open Access | Free Market Availability of Rapid Diagnostics Will Empower Communities To Control Malaria in India

June 29, 2021 - 13:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rahi M, Sharma A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28:tpmd210213

Globally malaria incidence has declined, but further reductions in malaria are not evident in many countries. In addition to the public health approaches for tackling malaria, involvement of the private sector is vital because the private sector plays a central role in healthcare delivery to the masses. In India, malaria management is primarily provided through government programs.

NOT Open Access | Are Dawn Collections of Anopheles stephensi a Better Method To Estimate the Resting Vector Density? A Study from Chennai, India

June 29, 2021 - 13:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NJA, Thomas S, Mathai MT, Eapen A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28:tpmd200822

The study was an attempt to capture Anopheles stephensi from cattle sheds during dawn to understand the realistic density of the resting mosquitoes. A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out in cattle sheds in close proximity to the human dwellings to collect the resting vector mosquitoes. The man-hour density of A. stephensi ranged from 24.7 to 206.5.

NOT Open Access | Antibody Combinations Targeting the Essential Antigens CyRPA, RH5, and MSP-119 Potently Neutralize Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Isolates From India and Africa

June 9, 2021 - 07:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh H, Mian SY, Gaur D, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 4;223(11):1953-1964

Targeting multiple key antigens that mediate distinct Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion pathways is an attractive approach for the development of blood-stage malaria vaccines. However, the challenge is to identify antigen cocktails that elicit potent strain-transcending parasite-neutralizing antibodies efficacious at low immunoglobulin G concentrations feasible to achieve through vaccination. Previous reports have screened inhibitory antibodies primarily against well adapted laboratory parasite clones. However, validation of the parasite-neutralizing efficacy against clinical isolates with minimal in vitro cultivation is equally significant to better ascertain their prospective in vivo potency.

Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in four malaria endemic states of India

May 26, 2021 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sri Krishna, Sweta Mishra, Praveen K. Bharti, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:229, 21 May 2021

Malaria is a major public health problem in India and accounts for about 88% of malaria burden in South-East Asia. India alone accounted for 2% of total malaria cases globally. Anti-malarial drug resistance is one of the major problems for malaria control and elimination programme. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in north eastern states of India since 2013 after confirming the resistance against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. In the present study, therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and k13 polymorphism was assessed in uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

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