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Significance of training, monitoring and assessment of malaria workers in achieving malaria elimination goal of Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project

January 13, 2021 - 08:31 -- Open Access
Harsh Rajvanshi, Sekh Nisar, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:27, 7 January 2021

The Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) maintained a workforce of 235 Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) and 25 Malaria Field Coordinators (MFCs) to conduct disease surveillance, case management, IEC/BCC activities, capacity building, and monitoring of vector control activities in 1233 villages of Mandla, a high malaria endemic district of Madhya Pradesh in central India.

Socio-economic determinants of malaria in tribal dominated Mandla district enrolled in Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Madhya Pradesh

January 7, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Ravendra K. Sharma, Harsh Rajvanshi, Praveen K. Bharti, Sekh Nisar, Himanshu Jayswar, Ashok K. Mishra, Kalyan B. Saha, Man Mohan Shukla, Aparup Das, Harpreet Kaur, Suman L. Wattal and Altaf A. Lal
Malaria Journal 2021 20:7, 5 January 2021

Malaria is known as a disease of poverty because of its dominance in poverty-stricken areas. Madhya Pradesh state in central India is one of the most vulnerable states for malaria morbidity and mortality. Socio-economic, environmental and demographic factors present challenges in malaria control and elimination. As part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in the tribal district of Mandla in Madhya Pradesh, this study was undertaken to assess the role of different social-economic factors contributing to malaria incidence.

Clinical spectrum and predictors of severe Plasmodium vivax infections at a tertiary care center in North India

January 6, 2021 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Walia D, Arora U, Baitha U, Kumar A, Ranjan P, Soneja M, Verma N, Khan MA, Aggarwal P, Biswas A, Wig N
Drug Discov Ther. 2020 Dec 31

Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapid kits or peripheral smears.

Co-infection of malaria and early clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers

December 30, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Mahajan NN, Gajbhiye R, Bahirat S, Lokhande PD, Mathe A, Rathi S, Warty N, Mahajan K, Srivastava V, Kuppusamy P, Mohite SC
J Med Virol. 2020 Dec 24

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Information regarding co‐infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 with vector‐borne diseases (malaria and dengue) is crucial especially for the countries wherein malaria and dengue are endemic. The objective was to study the prevalence, demographic, clinical presentations among HCWs with COVID‐19 and to compare the viral clearance in HCWs with COVID‐19 and co‐infection of malaria and dengue.

Assessing the in vitro sensitivity with associated drug resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates from Delhi, India

November 25, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Matlani M, Kumar A, Singh V
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov 19:108047

The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.

Molecular forms of Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus in the Indian subcontinent

November 24, 2020 - 13:48 -- Open Access
Ankita Sindhania, Manoj K. Das, Gunjan Sharma, Sinnathamby N. Surendran, B. R. Kaushal, Himanshu P. Lohani and Om P. Singh
Malaria Journal 2020 19:417, 19 November 2020

Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus are closely related species, each comprising several sibling species. Ambiguities exist in the classification of these two nominal species and the specific status of members of these species complexes. Identifying fixed molecular forms and mapping their spatial distribution will help in resolving the taxonomic ambiguities and understanding their relative epidemiological significance.

Study design and operational framework for a community-based Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

November 17, 2020 - 13:20 -- Open Access
Harsh Rajvanshi, Praveen K. Bharti, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:410, 16 November 2020

In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts.

Malaria in Sundargarh district, Odisha, India: Epidemiological and behavioral aspects from surveys

November 4, 2020 - 15:57 -- Open Access
van Eijk AM, Choubey S, Barla P, Haque MA, Nandini P, Acharya S, Sullivan SA, Mohanty S, Satpathi S, Carlton JM
Acta Trop. 2020 Nov;211:105647. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica

To characterize malaria and assist in prevention efforts, we conducted a series of epidemiological studies in Sundargarh district, India, as part of an NIH-funded International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research. In a published survey around Rourkela in 2013-2014 (N = 1307), malaria prevalence was found to be 8.3%. Using these data, villages were divided into low (<2%), medium (2-10%) and high (>10%) malaria prevalence, and risk factors assessed by type of village. In the six low malaria villages, four persons were positive by PCR; in the four medium malaria villages, prevalence was 7% (35 infections, 7 P. vivax); and in the three high malaria villages, prevalence was 21% (62 infections, 10 P. vivax and 5 mixed with P. vivax and P. falciparum).

Severe vivax malaria trends in the last two years: a study from a tertiary care centre, Delhi, India

November 4, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Matlani M, Kojom LP, Mishra N, Dogra V, Singh V
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2020 Oct 30;19(1):49

Plasmodium vivax, once considered benign species, is recently being recognised to be causing severe malaria like Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the authors report the trends in malaria severity in P. vivax among patients from a Delhi government hospital. The aim of the study was to understand the disease severity and the burden of severe vivax malaria.

Haplotype of RNASE 3 polymorphisms is associated with severe malaria in an Indian population

October 31, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Mukhi B, Gupta H, Wassmer SC, Anvikar AR, Ghosh SK
Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Oct 28

Severe malaria (SM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection has been associated with life-threatening anemia, metabolic acidosis, cerebral malaria and multiorgan dysfunction. It may lead to death if not treated promptly. RNASE 3 has been linked to Pf growth inhibition and its polymorphisms found associated with SM and cerebral malaria in African populations.


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