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NOT Open Access | Antibody Combinations Targeting the Essential Antigens CyRPA, RH5, and MSP-119 Potently Neutralize Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Isolates From India and Africa

June 9, 2021 - 07:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh H, Mian SY, Gaur D, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 4;223(11):1953-1964

Targeting multiple key antigens that mediate distinct Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion pathways is an attractive approach for the development of blood-stage malaria vaccines. However, the challenge is to identify antigen cocktails that elicit potent strain-transcending parasite-neutralizing antibodies efficacious at low immunoglobulin G concentrations feasible to achieve through vaccination. Previous reports have screened inhibitory antibodies primarily against well adapted laboratory parasite clones. However, validation of the parasite-neutralizing efficacy against clinical isolates with minimal in vitro cultivation is equally significant to better ascertain their prospective in vivo potency.

Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in four malaria endemic states of India

May 26, 2021 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sri Krishna, Sweta Mishra, Praveen K. Bharti, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:229, 21 May 2021

Malaria is a major public health problem in India and accounts for about 88% of malaria burden in South-East Asia. India alone accounted for 2% of total malaria cases globally. Anti-malarial drug resistance is one of the major problems for malaria control and elimination programme. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in north eastern states of India since 2013 after confirming the resistance against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. In the present study, therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and k13 polymorphism was assessed in uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate MSP1 displays conserved B-cell epitope despite high genetic diversity

May 25, 2021 - 14:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ghoshal S, Kanjilal SD, Sengupta S
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 May 19:104929

The polymorphic nature of merozoite surface protein 1(MSP1) raises doubts whether it may serve as a vaccine target against Plasmodium vivax malaria. This study analyses the impact of genetic variability on the epitope organization of different Pvmsp1 blocks. Ten blood samples collected from P. vivax infected malaria patients from West Bengal, India were used to analyze sequence and antigenic diversities of block 2 region of Pvmsp1.

Optimization of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite production from Anopheles stephensi in South West India

May 18, 2021 - 13:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Charles de Souza, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:221, 18 May 2021

Efforts to study the biology of Plasmodium vivax liver stages, particularly the latent hypnozoites, have been hampered by the limited availability of P. vivax sporozoites. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. Using P. vivax patient blood samples, a series of standard membrane-feeding experiments were performed with An. stephensi under the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA). The goal was to understand the dynamics of parasite development in mosquitoes as well as the production of P. vivax sporozoites. To obtain a robust supply of P. vivax sporozoites, mosquito-rearing and mosquito membrane-feeding techniques were optimized, which are described here.

Artemisinin combination therapy fails even in the absence of Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene polymorphism in Central India

May 13, 2021 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Das S, Kar A, Manna S, Mandal S, Mandal S, Das S, Saha B, Hati AK
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 May 11;11(1):9946

Artemisinin is the frontline fast-acting anti-malarial against P. falciparum. Emergence and spread of resistant parasite in eastern-India poses a threat to national malaria control programs. Therefore, the objective of our study is to evaluate the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine efficacy in Central India. 180 monoclonal P. falciparum-infected patients received standard ASSP therapy during August 2015-January 2017, soon after diagnosis and monitored over next 42-days. Artemisinin-resistance was assessed through in-vivo parasite clearance half-life (PC1/2), ex-vivo ring-stage survivability (RSA), and genome analysis of kelch13 and other candidate gene (pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfatpase 6, pfdhfr and pfdhps).

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in India

April 14, 2021 - 16:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Foko LPK, Arya A, Sharma A, Singh V
Reference: 
J Infect. 2021 Apr 5:S0163-4453(21)00161-4

A systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA) of the available Indian literature on severe vivax malaria (SVM) was undertaken.

Not Open Access | Malaria elimination in India requires additional surveillance mechanisms

April 7, 2021 - 12:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rahi M, Das P, Sharma A
Reference: 
J Public Health (Oxf). 2021 Apr 5:fdab106

Malaria surveillance is weak in high malaria burden countries. Surveillance is considered as one of the core interventions for malaria elimination. Impressive reductions in malaria-associated morbidity and mortality have been achieved across the globe, but sustained efforts need to be bolstered up to achieve malaria elimination in endemic countries like India.

Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction during mass survey conducted in low and high malaria-endemic areas from two North-Eastern states of India

March 31, 2021 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shankar H, Singh MP, Phookan S, Singh K, Mishra N
Reference: 
Parasitol Res (2021)

An early and accurate diagnosis followed by prompt treatment is pre-requisite for the management of any disease. Malaria diagnosis is routinely performed by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the field settings; however, their performance may vary across regions, age and asymptomatic status. Owing to this, we assessed the diagnostic performance of conventional and advanced molecular tools for malaria detection in low and high malaria-endemic settings. We performed mass blood surveys in low and high endemic regions of two North-Eastern districts from the states of Assam and Meghalaya.

Not Open Access | Understanding the effect of climate change in the distribution and intensity of malaria transmission over India using a dynamical malaria model

March 23, 2021 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaturvedi S, Dwivedi S
Reference: 
Int J Biometeorol. 2021 Mar 18

Efforts have been made to quantify the spatio-temporal malaria transmission intensity over India using the dynamical malaria model, namely, Vector-borne Disease Community Model of International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste (VECTRI). The likely effect of climate change in the variability of malaria transmission intensity over different parts of India is also investigated.

Digitized smart surveillance and micromanagement using information technology for malaria elimination in Mangaluru, India: an analysis of five-year post-digitization data

March 10, 2021 - 15:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
B. Shantharam Baliga, Shrikala Baliga, Animesh Jain, Naveen Kulal, Manu Kumar, Naren Koduvattat, B. G. Prakash Kumar, Arun Kumar and Susanta K. Ghosh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:139, 8 March 2021

Malaria control system (MCS), an Information technology (IT)-driven surveillance and monitoring intervention is being adopted for elimination of malaria in Mangaluru city, Karnataka, India since October 2015. This has facilitated ‘smart surveillance’ followed by required field response within a timeline. The system facilitated data collection of individual case, data driven mapping and strategies for malaria elimination programme. This paper aims to present the analysis of post-digitization data of 5 years, discuss the current operational functionalities of MCS and its impact on the malaria incidence.

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