India has launched the malaria elimination initiative in February 2016. Studies suggest that estimates of malaria are useful to rationalize interventions and track their impact. Hence, a national study was launched to estimate burden of malaria in India in 2015.
Molecular surveillance of the drug resistance genes in parasite can be used for monitoring/surveillance of drug resistance in endemic malaria areas. Here we report the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in nucleotide sequence of Plasmodium falciparum from different regions in India.
Anopheles culicifacies s.l. is the principal malaria vector in India and has recently developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids. For identifying the possible operational impact, quantitative measure of the intensity of this resistance is required. The purpose of this study was to measure the intensity of pyrethroid resistance in An. culicifacies s.l.
Malaria is a major public health problem in India, which is the second most populous country in the world. This study aimed to investigate the impact of climatic parameters and malaria control efforts implemented by the Indian national malaria control program on malaria epidemics between January of 2009 and December of 2015.
Development of a successful blood-stage vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a high priority. Immune-epidemiological studies are effective tools for the identification of antigenic targets of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against malaria. However, differences in study design and methodology may compromise interstudy comparisons.
This study evaluated intermittent screening and treatment during pregnancy (ISTp) for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at antenatal care (ANC) compared with passive case detection within the routine health system. The mixed-method evaluation included two cross-sectional household surveys (pre- and post-implementation of ISTp), in-depth interviews with health workers, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women.
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in immune regulation, and a common miRNA-146a polymorphism (rs2910164) increased the odds of falciparum malaria in pregnant African women. Here, we examined whether this association holds true in a different population, that is, 449 mainly male and adult malaria patients and 666 community controls in southwestern India. Plasmodium vivax malaria (67%) predominated over falciparum malaria (11%) and mixed species infections (22%).
In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.
The development of resistance in vectors is one of the major impediments for malaria control. Adding synergists to insecticides has proven to be an alternative choice for controlling resistant mosquitoes. DawaPlus 3.0 and DawaPlus 4.0 are new long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in which deltamethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) are added into filaments and their efficacy was tested against resistant malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies in experimental huts in India.
Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. It is safe, efficacious and well tolerated anti-malarial. However, delayed haemolysis has been reported in travellers, non-immune individuals and in African children.