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Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

February 3, 2020 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Loick P. Kojom and Vineeta Singh
Malaria Journal 2020 19:46, 28 January 2020

In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.

Evaluation of DawaPlus 3.0 and DawaPlus 4.0, deltamethrin–PBO combination nets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies in experimental huts in India

January 27, 2020 - 13:40 -- Open Access
Kasinathan Gunasekaran, Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Tharmalingam Vijayakumar, Swaminathan Subramanian, Manju Rahi and Purushothaman Jambulingam
Malaria Journal 2020 19:43, 23 January 2020

The development of resistance in vectors is one of the major impediments for malaria control. Adding synergists to insecticides has proven to be an alternative choice for controlling resistant mosquitoes. DawaPlus 3.0 and DawaPlus 4.0 are new long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in which deltamethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) are added into filaments and their efficacy was tested against resistant malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies in experimental huts in India.

Delayed haemolysis after treatment with intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in India

January 27, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Deepali Savargaonkar, Manoj Kumar Das, Amar Verma, Jeevan K. Mitra, C. P. Yadav, Bina Srivastava, Anupkumar R. Anvikar and Neena Valecha
Malaria Journal 2020 19:39, 22 January 2020

Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. It is safe, efficacious and well tolerated anti-malarial. However, delayed haemolysis has been reported in travellers, non-immune individuals and in African children.

Evaluation of long-lasting indoor residual spraying of deltamethrin 62.5 SC-PE against malaria vectors in India

January 15, 2020 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Sonia Thankachy, Smrutidhara Dash, Krishnamoorthy Nallan, Subramanian Swaminathan, Gunasekaran Kasinathan and Jambulingam Purushothaman
Malaria Journal 2020 19:19, 14 January 2020

Deltamethrin 62.5 polymer-enhanced suspension concentrate (SC-PE) is one of the World Health Organization-approved insecticides for indoor residual spraying and was recommended to evaluate its residual activity for determination of appropriate spray cycles in different eco-epidemiologic settings. In the current study, efficacy of deltamethrin 62.5 SC-PE was evaluated against vectors of malaria and its impact on malaria incidence in a Plasmodium falciparum hyper-endemic area in Koraput district, Odisha State, India.

Unlicensed medical practitioners in tribal dominated rural areas of central India: bottleneck in malaria elimination

January 15, 2020 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Mrigendra Pal Singh, Sunil Kumar Chand, Kalyan Brata Saha, Neetiraj Singh, Ramesh C. Dhiman and Lora L. Sabin
Malaria Journal 2020 19:18, 14 January 2020

In India, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) deliver services for diagnosis and treatment of malaria, although unlicensed medical practitioners (UMPs) (informal health providers) are most preferred in communities. A cross sectional survey was conducted to: (i) assess knowledge and treatment-seeking practices in the community, and (ii) explore the diagnosis and treatment practices related to malaria of UMPs working in rural and tribal-dominated high malaria endemic areas of central India, and whether they adhere to the national guidelines.

Antibody responses within two leading Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigens in three geographically diverse malaria-endemic regions of India

December 17, 2019 - 16:49 -- Open Access
Sonal Kale, Chander P. Yadav, Prashant K. Mallick, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:425, 16 December 2019

Identifying highly immunogenic blood stage antigens which can work as target for naturally acquired antibodies in different eco-epidemiological settings is an important step for designing malaria vaccine. Blood stage proteins of Plasmodium vivax, apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) and 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein (PvMSP-119) are such promising vaccine candidate antigens. This study determined the naturally-acquired antibody response to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119 antigens in individuals living in three geographically diverse malaria endemic regions of India.

Biology and bionomics of malaria vectors in India: existing information and what more needs to be known for strategizing elimination of malaria

December 10, 2019 - 08:14 -- Open Access
Sarala K. Subbarao, Nutan Nanda, Manju Rahi and Kamaraju Raghavendra
Malaria Journal 2019 18:396, 3 December 2019

India has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The national framework for malaria elimination released by the Government of India plans to achieve this goal through strategic planning in a phased manner. Since vector control is a major component of disease management and vector elimination, it requires a thorough understanding of the biology and bionomics of malaria vectors exhibiting definite distribution patterns in diverse ecosystems in the country.

Genetic profiling of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite population in uncomplicated malaria from India

December 9, 2019 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Amit Kumar, Shri Pat Singh, Rajendra Bhatt and Vineeta Singh
Malaria Journal 2019 18:385, 2 December 2019

The genetic complexity and the existence of several polymorphisms in parasites are the major hindrances for the malaria control programmes of the country. The genetic profiling in the parasite populations in India will provide useful baseline data for future studies elucidating the parasite structure and distribution of drug resistance genotypes in different regions.

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The burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in India revealed from epidemiology studies at three varied transmission sites in India

December 2, 2019 - 17:58 -- Open Access
van Eijk AM, Sutton PL, Alex Eapen, et al.
Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 19;9(1):17095

Malaria in India, while decreasing, remains a serious public health problem, and the contribution of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections to its persistence is poorly understood. We conducted community surveys and clinic studies at three sites in India differing in their eco-epidemiologies: Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Nadiad (Gujarat), and Rourkela (Odisha), during 2012-2015. A total of 6,645 subject blood samples were collected for Plasmodium diagnosis by microscopy and PCR, and an extensive clinical questionnaire completed.  


Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India

December 18, 2012 - 17:22 -- Open Access
Takumi Kaga and Shunji Ohta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4704-4714

Here, we examined how the potential distribution obtained from the model could explain trends in malaria incidence observed in India, which has the highest number of confirmed cases of malaria in Asia.

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