In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.
The development of resistance in vectors is one of the major impediments for malaria control. Adding synergists to insecticides has proven to be an alternative choice for controlling resistant mosquitoes. DawaPlus 3.0 and DawaPlus 4.0 are new long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in which deltamethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) are added into filaments and their efficacy was tested against resistant malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies in experimental huts in India.
Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. It is safe, efficacious and well tolerated anti-malarial. However, delayed haemolysis has been reported in travellers, non-immune individuals and in African children.
Deltamethrin 62.5 polymer-enhanced suspension concentrate (SC-PE) is one of the World Health Organization-approved insecticides for indoor residual spraying and was recommended to evaluate its residual activity for determination of appropriate spray cycles in different eco-epidemiologic settings. In the current study, efficacy of deltamethrin 62.5 SC-PE was evaluated against vectors of malaria and its impact on malaria incidence in a Plasmodium falciparum hyper-endemic area in Koraput district, Odisha State, India.
In India, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) deliver services for diagnosis and treatment of malaria, although unlicensed medical practitioners (UMPs) (informal health providers) are most preferred in communities. A cross sectional survey was conducted to: (i) assess knowledge and treatment-seeking practices in the community, and (ii) explore the diagnosis and treatment practices related to malaria of UMPs working in rural and tribal-dominated high malaria endemic areas of central India, and whether they adhere to the national guidelines.
Identifying highly immunogenic blood stage antigens which can work as target for naturally acquired antibodies in different eco-epidemiological settings is an important step for designing malaria vaccine. Blood stage proteins of Plasmodium vivax, apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) and 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein (PvMSP-119) are such promising vaccine candidate antigens. This study determined the naturally-acquired antibody response to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119 antigens in individuals living in three geographically diverse malaria endemic regions of India.
India has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The national framework for malaria elimination released by the Government of India plans to achieve this goal through strategic planning in a phased manner. Since vector control is a major component of disease management and vector elimination, it requires a thorough understanding of the biology and bionomics of malaria vectors exhibiting definite distribution patterns in diverse ecosystems in the country.
The genetic complexity and the existence of several polymorphisms in parasites are the major hindrances for the malaria control programmes of the country. The genetic profiling in the parasite populations in India will provide useful baseline data for future studies elucidating the parasite structure and distribution of drug resistance genotypes in different regions.
Malaria in India, while decreasing, remains a serious public health problem, and the contribution of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections to its persistence is poorly understood. We conducted community surveys and clinic studies at three sites in India differing in their eco-epidemiologies: Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Nadiad (Gujarat), and Rourkela (Odisha), during 2012-2015. A total of 6,645 subject blood samples were collected for Plasmodium diagnosis by microscopy and PCR, and an extensive clinical questionnaire completed.
Here, we examined how the potential distribution obtained from the model could explain trends in malaria incidence observed in India, which has the highest number of confirmed cases of malaria in Asia.