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India

Population genetic and biophysical evidences reveal that purifying selection shapes the genetic landscape of Plasmodium falciparum RH ligands in Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, India

October 15, 2020 - 08:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharmistha Ghoshal, Pramita Chowdhury, Sanhita Ray, Mitashree Mitra, Sumana Datta Kanjilal, Srikanta Sen, Anjan Kr. Dasgupta and Sanghamitra Sengupta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:367,14 October 2020

Reticulocyte binding protein-like homologs (RHs) are currently being evaluated as anti-erythrocytic stage vaccine targets against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Present study explores the possible evolutionary drivers shaping the genetic organization of Pfrhs in Indian parasite population. It simultaneously evaluates a putative gain-of-function variant of PfRH5, a keystone member of PfRH family.

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

NOT Open Access | Allelic variation of msp-3α gene in Plasmodium vivax isolates and its correlation with the severity of disease in vivax malaria

September 12, 2020 - 14:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Upmanyu K, Matlani M, Yadav P, Rathi U, Mallick PK, Singh R
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Sep 4:104530

Malaria is a global socio-economic burden of which Plasmodium vivax contributes for about 70-80 million cases on an annual basis worldwide and 60-65% cases in India. Diversity observed in highly polymorphic Merozoite Surface Protein-3α (msp-3α) encoded by MSP-3 gene family, has been used efficiently for genotyping of P. vivax infection. This study aims to correlate the severity of clinical symptoms with parasite load, genotype of P. vivax and multiplicity of infection.

Assessment of effectiveness of DAMaN: A malaria intervention program initiated by Government of Odisha, India

September 10, 2020 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bal M, Das A, Ghosal J, Pradhan MM, Khuntia HK, Pati S, Dutta A, Ranjit M
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 8;15(9):e0238323

India, a persistently significant contributor to the global malaria burden, rolled out several anti-malaria interventions at the national and state level to control and recently, to eliminate the disease. Odisha, the eastern Indian state with the highest malaria burden experienced substantial gains shown by various anti-malaria initiatives implemented under the National Vector-borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP).

NOT Open Access | Climate based malaria forecasting system for Andhra Pradesh, India

September 5, 2020 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mopuri R, Kakarla SG, Mutheneni SR, Kadiri MR, Kumaraswamy S
Reference: 
J Parasit Dis. 2020 Sep;44(3):497-510

Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries of the World. During the year 1999, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India experienced a major epidemic of malaria, and nearly 41,805 cases were reported. Hence, a retrospective malaria surveillance study was conducted from 2001 to 2016 and reported nearly a total of 149,317 malaria cases during the study period.

Stable high frequencies of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance associated mutations and absence of K13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum 3 and 4 years after the introduction of artesunate plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India

August 17, 2020 - 13:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashish Pathak, Andreas Mårtensson, Sudhir Gawariker, Ashish Sharma, Vishal Diwan, Manju Purohit and Johan Ursing
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:290, 14 August 2020

Artesunate plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (ASP) is first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most of India, except for six North-eastern provinces where treatment failure rates were high. In Ujjain, central India, the frequency of mutations associated with increased drug tolerance, but not overt resistance to sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine were 9% and > 80%, respectively, in 2009 and 2010, just prior to the introduction of ASP. The frequency of drug resistance associated mutations in Ujjain in 2015–2016 after 3–4 years of ASP use, are reported.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia in Odisha, India: A Challenge to Malaria Elimination

August 17, 2020 - 13:08 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kumari P, Sinha S, Gahtori R, Yadav CP, Pradhan MM, Rahi M, Pande V, Anvikar AR
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 10

The prevalence of malaria in India is decreasing, but it remains a major concern for public health administration. The role of submicroscopic malaria and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and their persistence is being explored. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Kandhamal district of Odisha (India) during May-June 2017. Blood samples were collected from 1897 individuals for screening of asymptomatic parasitemia. Samples were screened using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and examined microscopically for Plasmodium species.

Association of Dengue Virus and Leptospira Co-Infections with Malaria Severity

August 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mandage R, Kaur C, Pramanik A, Kumar V, Kodan P, Singh A, Saha S, Pandey S, Wig N, Pandey RM, Soneja M, Acharya P
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8):1645-1653

Plasmodium infections are co-endemic with infections caused by other agents of acute febrile illnesses, such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus, Leptospira spp., and Orientia tsutsugamushi. However, co-infections may influence disease severity, treatment outcomes, and development of drug resistance.

Defining symptoms of malaria in India in an era of asymptomatic infections

July 7, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anna Maria van Eijk, Asad S. Mannan, Steven A. Sullivan and Jane M. Carlton
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:237, 6 July 2020

Malaria is a major public health problem in India. Data from surveys totaling 3031 participants at three sites revealed a high proportion of asymptomatic infections, complicating diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify differences in complaints and symptoms between sites, and factors associated with asymptomatic Plasmodium infections.

Plasmodium vivax liver stage assay platforms using Indian clinical isolates

June 26, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pradeep A. Subramani, Neha Vartak-Sharma, Varadharajan Sundaramurthy, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:214, 22 June 2020

Vivax malaria is associated with significant morbidity and economic loss, and constitutes the bulk of malaria cases in large parts of Asia and South America as well as recent case reports in Africa. The widespread prevalence of vivax is a challenge to global malaria elimination programmes. Vivax malaria control is particularly challenged by existence of dormant liver stage forms that are difficult to treat and are responsible for multiple relapses, growing drug resistance to the asexual blood stages and host-genetic factors that preclude use of specific drugs like primaquine capable of targeting Plasmodium vivax liver stages. Despite an obligatory liver-stage in the Plasmodium life cycle, both the difficulty in obtaining P. vivax sporozoites and the limited availability of robust host cell models permissive to P. vivax infection are responsible for the limited knowledge of hypnozoite formation biology and relapse mechanisms, as well as the limited capability to do drug screening. Although India accounts for about half of vivax malaria cases world-wide, very little is known about the vivax liver stage forms in the context of Indian clinical isolates.

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