Malaria parasites complete their intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in multiples of 24 h suggesting a circadian basis, but the mechanism controlling this periodicity is unknown.
The co-stimulatory molecule ICOS is associated with the induction and regulation of T helper cell responses, including the differentiation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and the formation and maintenance of memory T cells. However, the role of ICOS signaling in secondary immune responses is largely unexplored. Here we show that memory T cell formation and maintenance are influenced by persistent infection with P. chabaudi chabaudi AS infection, as memory T cell numbers decline in wild-type and Icos-/- mice after drug-clearance.
Malaria is a worldwide problem that affects millions of people yearly. In rural areas where anti-malarial drugs are not easily accessible, many people use herbal treatments, such as Moringa oleifera, to treat a variety of diseases and ailments including malaria. While Moringa is reported to possess potent and curative anti-malarial properties, previous studies have mostly been restricted to assessment of parasitaemia. In this study, the effect of Moringa on malaria immunity in a murine model was investigated.
Malaria-associated bacteremia accounts for up to one-third of deaths from severe malaria, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) has been reported as a major complication of severe malarial infection.
Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria.
The ability of malaria (Plasmodium) parasites to adjust investment into sexual transmission stages versus asexually replicating stages is well known, but plasticity in other traits underpinning the replication rate of asexual stages in the blood has received less attention. Such traits include burst size (the number of merozoites produced per schizont), the duration of the asexual cycle, and invasion preference for different ages of red blood cell (RBC).
Malaria represents a worldwide medical emergency affecting mainly poor areas. Plasmodium parasites during blood stages can release kinins to the extracellular space after internalization of host kininogen inside erythrocytes and these released peptides could represent an important mechanism in liver pathophysiology by activation of calcium signaling pathway in endothelial cells of vertebrate host. Receptors (B1 and B2) activated by kinins peptides are important elements for the control of haemodynamics in liver and its physiology. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the liver host responses (i.e. kinin receptors expression and localization) and the effect of ACE inhibition during malaria infection using a murine model.
A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria.
Ubiquitination tags proteins for different functions within the cell. One of the most abundant and studied ubiquitin modification is the Lys48 polyubiquitin chain that modifies proteins for their destruction by proteasome.
These results indicate that ICAM-1-mediated cytoadherence is important in the P. chabaudi model of malaria and suggest that for rodent malarias, as for P. falciparum, there may be multiple host and parasite molecules involved in sequestration.