Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site insecticide resistance mechanism that is associated with DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Even though insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT have been reported in Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles benarrochi sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. malaria vectors in Latin America, there is a knowledge gap on the role that kdr resistance mechanisms play in this resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the role that kdr mechanisms play in pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main malaria vectors in Colombia, in addition to previously reported metabolic resistance mechanisms, such as mixed function oxidases (MFO) and nonspecific esterases (NSE) enzyme families.
The study confirmed that deltamethrin resistance is widespread in malaria vectors in Southern Benin. We suspect that the increase in deltamethrin resistance between 2012 and 2014 resulted from an increased expression of metabolic detoxification genes (CYP6M2 and CYP6P3) rather than from kdr mutations.
This vector is resistant to DDT in most parts of the country with indication of emerging resistance to pyrethroids. Since knockdown resistance (kdr) is known to confer cross-resistance between DDT and pyrethroids owing to a common target site of action, knowledge of prevalence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles is important from insecticide resistance management point of view.
One deltamethrin ITN was distributed in the study area for every two individuals in each household plus one extra ITN for households with an odd number of residents. A fixed cohort of 1,199 children aged six to 59 months was seen monthly for one year and at sick visits to measure malaria infection and use of ITNs.
We colonised a pyrethroid-resistant population of An. sinensis in the laboratory, which provides a fundamental model for genetic studies of this important malaria vector.
This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3–5 years using pyrethroids.
The study confirms the efficacy of PN 3.0 in reducing malaria transmission compared to pyrethroid-only LLINs in the presence of malaria vectors with P450-based metabolic- resistance mechanisms.
The aim of this study was to determine if the resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides has an impact on their behavior and on the effectiveness of LLINs in the reduction of malaria transmission.
In this study, the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in a selected laboratory strain of An. arabiensis from South Africa was investigated using a custom-made microarray, known as the An. gambiae detoxification chip.
The aim of the present study was to assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors against the insecticides used for LLINs and IRS and to determine the durability and efficacy of LLINs on the island.