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Malawi

NOT Open Access | Case reduction and cost-effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine alongside bed nets in Lilongwe, Malawi

May 6, 2020 - 15:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell GJ, Loop M, Emch M, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Apr 30. pii: S0264-410X(20)30511-9

RTS,S/AS01, the most advanced vaccine against malaria, is now undergoing pilot implementation in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya where an estimated 360,000 children will be vaccinated each year. In this study we evaluate RTS,S/AS01 alongside bed net use and estimate cost-effectiveness.

Effects of Biannual Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration on Malaria in Malawian Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

April 29, 2020 - 09:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hart JD, Samikwa L, Sikina F, Kalua K, Keenan JD, Lietman TM, Burr SE, Bailey RL
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

Reductions in malaria morbidity have been reported following azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma. The recent MORDOR trial reported a reduction in child mortality following biannual azithromycin MDA. Here, we investigate the effects of azithromycin MDA on malaria at the MORDOR-Malawi study site. A cluster-randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, with 15 clusters per arm, was conducted. House-to-house census was updated biannually, and azithromycin or placebo syrup was distributed to children aged 1–59 months for a total of four biannual distributions.

Malaria knowledge and experiences with community health workers among recently pregnant women in Malawi

April 17, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashley Malpass, Jobiba Chinkhumba, Julie R. Gutman, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:154, 15 April 2020

The World Health Organization recommends three or more doses of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) to mitigate the negative effects of malaria in pregnancy (MIP). Many pregnant women in Malawi are not receiving the recommended number of doses. Community delivery of IPTp (cIPTp) is being piloted as a new approach to increase coverage. This survey assessed recently pregnant women’s knowledge of MIP and their experiences with community health workers (CHWs) prior to implementing cIPTp.

A qualitative exploration of the experiences of community health animation on malaria control in rural Malawi

April 6, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tumaini Malenga, Frances E. Griffiths, Marrit van den Berg, Henk van den Berg, Michèle van Vugt, Kamija Samuel Phiri, Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Eric Umar
Reference: 
Globalization and Health volume 16, 25 (2020)

While great strides have been achieved in fighting malaria through the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy, the recent world malaria report shows an increase in malaria-related deaths compared to previous years. Malaria control tools are efficacious and effective in preventing the disease; however, the human behaviour aspect of the intervention strategies is weak due to heavy reliance on positive human health behaviour. The challenge lies in adoption of control interventions by the target population which, to an extent, may include access to prevention and treatment tools. We present a qualitative assessment of the use of the Health Animator (HA) model for Information, Education and Communication (IEC) to improve adoption and use of malaria control by promoting positive health behaviours.

NOT Open Access | Interactions between antenatal sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites and delivery outcomes in Malawi

March 30, 2020 - 10:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 28. pii: jiaa145

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP-recipients.

A qualitative exploration of the experiences of community health animation on malaria control in rural Malawi

March 24, 2020 - 11:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Malenga T, Griffiths FE, van den Berg M, van den Berg H, van Vugt M, Phiri KS, Manda-Taylor L, Umar E
Reference: 
Global Health. 2020 Mar 20;16(1):25

While great strides have been achieved in fighting malaria through the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy, the recent world malaria report shows an increase in malaria-related deaths compared to previous years. Malaria control tools are efficacious and effective in preventing the disease; however, the human behaviour aspect of the intervention strategies is weak due to heavy reliance on positive human health behaviour. The challenge lies in adoption of control interventions by the target population which, to an extent, may include access to prevention and treatment tools. We present a qualitative assessment of the use of the Health Animator (HA) model for Information, Education and Communication (IEC) to improve adoption and use of malaria control by promoting positive health behaviours.

Uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Malawi after adoption of updated World Health Organization policy: an analysis of demographic and health survey 2015-2016

March 19, 2020 - 08:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Azizi SC
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Mar 16; 20(1):335

Malawi adopted the 2012 updated Word Health Organization (WHO) Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) policy in 2013. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of and identify factors associated with the uptake of at least three doses of IPTp with SP among pregnant women in Malawi after the adoption and operationalisation of updated WHO IPTp-SP policy.

Genetic differentiation and population structure of Anopheles funestus from Uganda and the southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

February 24, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaddumukasa MA, Wright J, Muleba M, Stevenson JC, Norris DE, Coetzee M
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Feb 18;13(1):87

Anopheles funestus (s.s.) is a primary vector of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Africa, a human pathogen that causes almost half a million deaths each year. The population structure of An. funestus was examined in samples from Uganda and the southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The effectiveness of older insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria infection in an area of moderate pyrethroid resistance: results from a cohort study in Malawi

January 20, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monica P. Shah, Laura C. Steinhardt, Dyson Mwandama, Themba Mzilahowa, John E. Gimnig, Andy Bauleni, Jacklyn Wong, Ryan Wiegand, Don P. Mathanga and Kim A. Lindblade
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:24, 15 January 2020

A previous cohort study in Malawi showed that users of new insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) were significantly protected against malaria compared to non-users, despite moderate levels of pyrethroid resistance among the primary mosquito vectors. The present study investigated whether ITNs that were 1–2 years old continued to protect users in the same area with moderate pyrethroid resistance.

Childhood malaria case incidence in Malawi between 2004 and 2017: spatio-temporal modelling of climate and non-climate factors

January 7, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
James Chirombo, Pietro Ceccato, Rachel Lowe, Dianne J Terlouw, Madeleine C Thomson, Austin Gumbo, Peter J Diggle and Jonathan M Read
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:5, 6 January 2020

Malaria transmission is influenced by a complex interplay of factors including climate, socio-economic, environmental factors and interventions. Malaria control efforts across Africa have shown a mixed impact. Climate driven factors may play an increasing role with climate change. Efforts to strengthen routine facility-based monthly malaria data collection across Africa create an increasingly valuable data source to interpret burden trends and monitor control programme progress. A better understanding of the association with other climatic and non-climatic drivers of malaria incidence over time and space may help guide and interpret the impact of interventions.

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