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Malawi

Prevalence and determinants of malaria infection among children of local farmers in Central Malawi

September 1, 2020 - 09:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Chilanga, Delphine Collin-Vézina, Heather MacIntosh, Claudia Mitchell and Katrina Cherney
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:308, 27 August 2020

Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years in Malawi, and especially among those from rural areas of central Malawi. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of malaria infection among children in rural areas of Dowa district in central Malawi.

How Does Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown Relate to Death and Disability in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria

August 27, 2020 - 08:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
MacCormick IJC, Barrera V, Beare NAV, Czanner G, Potchen M, Kampondeni S, Heyderman RS, Craig AG, Molyneux ME, Mallewa M, White VA, Milner D, Hiscott P, Taylor TE, Seydel KB, Harding SP
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 26:jiaa541

In cerebral malaria, the retina can be used to understand disease pathogenesis. The mechanisms linking sequestration, brain swelling and death remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that retinal vascular leakage would be associated with brain swelling.

Leveraging big data for public health: Mapping malaria vector suitability in Malawi with Google Earth Engine

August 5, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Frake AN, Peter BG, Walker ED, Messina JP
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(8): e0235697

In an era of big data, the availability of satellite-derived global climate, terrain, and land cover imagery presents an opportunity for modeling the suitability of malaria disease vectors at fine spatial resolutions, across temporal scales, and over vast geographic extents. Leveraging cloud-based geospatial analytical tools, we present an environmental suitability model that considers water resources, flow accumulation areas, precipitation, temperature, vegetation, and land cover. In contrast to predictive models generated using spatially and temporally discontinuous mosquito presence information, this model provides continuous fine-spatial resolution information on the biophysical drivers of suitability.

NOT Open Access | Interactions Between Antenatal Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, and Delivery Outcomes in Malawi

July 27, 2020 - 12:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):661-669

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP recipients.

Submicroscopic malaria infection is not associated with fever in cross-sectional studies in Malawi

June 30, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jimmy Vareta, Andrea G. Buchwald, Miriam K. Laufer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:233, 29 June 2020

Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections are widespread in many areas. However, the contribution of these infections to symptomatic malaria is not well understood. This study evaluated whether participants with submicroscopic P. falciparum infections have higher prevalence of fever than uninfected participants in southern Malawi.

Levels of knowledge regarding malaria causes, symptoms, and prevention measures among Malawian women of reproductive age

June 26, 2020 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alick Sixpence, Owen Nkoka, Gowokani C. Chirwa, Edith B. Milanzi, Charles Mangani, Don P. Mathanga and Peter A. M. Ntenda
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:225, 24 June 2020

Malawi is a malaria-endemic country and approximately 6 million cases are reported annually. Improving knowledge of malaria causes and symptoms, and the overall perception towards malaria and its preventive measures is vital for malaria control. The current study investigated the levels of knowledge of the causes, symptoms and prevention of malaria among Malawian women.

Plasma cell-free DNA predicts pediatric cerebral malaria severity

June 22, 2020 - 16:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vera IM, Kessler A, Kim K, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2020 Jun 18;5(12):136279

Prediction of adverse outcomes in cerebral malaria (CM) is difficult. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels would facilitate identification of severe and potentially fatal CM cases.

Environmental modifiers of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine efficacy in Lilongwe, Malawi

June 15, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell GJ, Loop MS, Hoffman I, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Jun 12; 20(1):910

RTS,S/AS01 is the first vaccine against malaria to undergo pilot implementation, beginning in 2019 and vaccinating 360,000 children per year in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya. The four-dose vaccine is given as a primary three-dose series with a fourth dose given approximately 18 months later. The efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 was variable among the 11 sites participating in the 2009–2014 phase III trial (MALARIA-055, NCT00866619), possibly due to differences in transmission intensity. However, a within-site examination of environmental factors related to transmission intensity and their impact on vaccine efficacy has yet to be conducted.

NOT Open Access | Characterisation of anopheline larval habitats in southern Malawi

June 3, 2020 - 07:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gowelo SA, Chirombo J, Koenraadt CJM, Mzilahowa T, Berg H, Takken W, McCann RS
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 May 30:105558

Increasing the knowledgebase of anopheline larval ecology could enable targeted deployment of malaria control efforts and consequently reduce costs of implementation. In Malawi, there exists a knowledge gap in anopheline larval ecology and, therefore, basis for targeted deployment of larval source management (LSM) for malaria control, specifically larvicides. We set out to characterize anopheline larval habitats in the Majete area of Malawi on the basis of habitat ecology and anopheline larval productivity to create a basis for larval control initiatives in the country.

NOT Open Access | Case reduction and cost-effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine alongside bed nets in Lilongwe, Malawi

May 6, 2020 - 15:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell GJ, Loop M, Emch M, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Apr 30. pii: S0264-410X(20)30511-9

RTS,S/AS01, the most advanced vaccine against malaria, is now undergoing pilot implementation in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya where an estimated 360,000 children will be vaccinated each year. In this study we evaluate RTS,S/AS01 alongside bed net use and estimate cost-effectiveness.

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