In rural south-eastern Tanzania, Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector, and has been implicated in nearly 90% of all infective bites. Unfortunately, little is known about the natural ecological requirements and survival strategies of this mosquito species.
Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improve control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories.
Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species has impeded malaria control in the region. Previous studies found that An. sinensis populations from Yunnan Province, China were highly resistant to deltamethrin and did not carry mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that cause knockdown resistance.
Exposure to inorganic fertilizer is common for the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, which is closely associated with agricultural activities. The aim of this study was to understand if insecticide susceptible and resistant individuals respond to fertilizer exposure in the same manner. Two laboratory strains, SENN, an insecticide susceptible strain, and SENN‐DDT, an insecticide resistant strain selected strain selected from SENN, were used in this study. Both strains were exposed to one of three concentrations of a combination nitrogen‐phosphorus‐potassium (NPK) inorganic fertilizer, as well as nitrogenous (urea), phosphorus (superphosphate) and kaelic (potassium chloride, KCl) elemental fertilizer. The time to pupation was monitored, adult longevity was assessed and the insecticide tolerance of adults was determined. The effect of elemental fertilizers on ovipositioning site choice was also assessed.
Ammonia is one of the principal kairomones originating from human and other animal emanations and in that context, plays an essential role in the host-seeking behaviors of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nevertheless, despite its importance in directing host-seeking, the mechanisms underlying ammonia detection in the mosquito olfactory system remains largely unknown.
The aim of this field trial was to evaluate the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in Mali, where sustained malaria transmission occurs despite the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). ATSB bait stations were deployed in seven of 14 similar study villages, where LLINs were already in widespread use. The combined use of ATSB and LLINs was tested to see if it would substantially reduce parasite transmission by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato beyond use of LLINs alone.
Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex breed in clean, sunlit temporary bodies of water. Anthropogenic pollution is, however, altering the breeding sites of the vectors with numerous biological effects. Although the effects of larval metal pollution have previously been examined, this study aims to assess the transgenerational effects of larval metal pollution on the major malaria vector An. arabiensis.
A clear understanding of mosquito biology is fundamental to the control efforts of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a popular method of measuring the survival and dispersal of disease vectors; however, examples with African malaria vectors are limited. Ethical and technical difficulties involved in carrying out MMRR studies may have held back research in this area and, therefore, a device that marks mosquitoes as they emerge from breeding sites was developed and evaluated to overcome the problems of MMRR.
Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.
The aim of this study was to analyse esterase activity levels at different ages during the life-span of adult Anopheles funestus Giles in order to better understand the complex biological processes in this species.