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malaria vector

Aquatic habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in rural south-eastern Tanzania

June 26, 2020 - 11:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ismail H. Nambunga, Halfan S. Ngowo, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:219, 23 June 2020

In rural south-eastern Tanzania, Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector, and has been implicated in nearly 90% of all infective bites. Unfortunately, little is known about the natural ecological requirements and survival strategies of this mosquito species.

An Africa-wide genomic evolution of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus involves selective sweeps, copy number variations, gene conversion and transposons

June 8, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Hearn J, Irving H, Kamdem C, Fouet C, White BJ, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS Genet 16(6): e1008822

Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improve control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories.

Genomic Variant Analyses in Pyrethroid Resistant and Susceptible Malaria Vector, Anopheles sinensis

May 20, 2020 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chang X, Zhong D, Wang X, Bonizzoni M, Li Y, Zhou G, Cui L, Wei X, Yan G
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2020 May 18:g3.401279.2020

Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species has impeded malaria control in the region. Previous studies found that An. sinensis populations from Yunnan Province, China were highly resistant to deltamethrin and did not carry mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that cause knockdown resistance.

NOT Open Access | Effects of inorganic fertilizer on larval development, adult longevity and insecticide susceptibility in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

April 6, 2020 - 08:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuel M, Brooke BD, Oliver SV
Reference: 
Pest Manag Sci. 2020 Apr;76(4):1560-1568

Exposure to inorganic fertilizer is common for the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, which is closely associated with agricultural activities. The aim of this study was to understand if insecticide susceptible and resistant individuals respond to fertilizer exposure in the same manner. Two laboratory strains, SENN, an insecticide susceptible strain, and SENN‐DDT, an insecticide resistant strain selected strain selected from SENN, were used in this study. Both strains were exposed to one of three concentrations of a combination nitrogen‐phosphorus‐potassium (NPK) inorganic fertilizer, as well as nitrogenous (urea), phosphorus (superphosphate) and kaelic (potassium chloride, KCl) elemental fertilizer. The time to pupation was monitored, adult longevity was assessed and the insecticide tolerance of adults was determined. The effect of elemental fertilizers on ovipositioning site choice was also assessed.

NOT Open Access | Heterogeneous Expression of the Ammonium Transporter AgAmt in Chemosensory Appendages of the Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae

March 9, 2020 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ye Z, Liu F, Sun H, Barker M, Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ
Reference: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 29 February 2020, 103360

Ammonia is one of the principal kairomones originating from human and other animal emanations and in that context, plays an essential role in the host-seeking behaviors of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nevertheless, despite its importance in directing host-seeking, the mechanisms underlying ammonia detection in the mosquito olfactory system remains largely unknown.

Large-scale field trial of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for the control of malaria vector mosquitoes in Mali, West Africa

February 22, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mohamad M. Traore, Amy Junnila, Sekou F. Traore, Seydou Doumbia, Edita E. Revay, Vasiliy D. Kravchenko, Yosef Schlein, Kristopher L. Arheart, Petrányi Gergely, Rui-De Xue, Axel Hausmann, Robert Beck, Alex Prozorov, Rabiatou A. Diarra, Aboubakr S. Kone, Silas Majambere, John Bradley, John Vontas, John C. Beier & Günter C. Müller
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:72, 14 February 2020

The aim of this field trial was to evaluate the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in Mali, where sustained malaria transmission occurs despite the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). ATSB bait stations were deployed in seven of 14 similar study villages, where LLINs were already in widespread use. The combined use of ATSB and LLINs was tested to see if it would substantially reduce parasite transmission by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato beyond use of LLINs alone.

Second generation effects of larval metal pollutant exposure on reproduction, longevity and insecticide tolerance in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

January 14, 2020 - 12:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jeanrenaud ACSN, Brooke BD, Oliver SV
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors, 2020 Jan 7; 13(1):4

Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex breed in clean, sunlit temporary bodies of water. Anthropogenic pollution is, however, altering the breeding sites of the vectors with numerous biological effects. Although the effects of larval metal pollution have previously been examined, this study aims to assess the transgenerational effects of larval metal pollution on the major malaria vector An. arabiensis.

The development and evaluation of a self-marking unit to estimate malaria vector survival and dispersal distance

December 30, 2019 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adam Saddler, Katharina S. Kreppel, Nakul Chitnis, Thomas A. Smith, Adrian Denz, Jason D. Moore, Mgeni M. Tambwe and Sarah J. Moore
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:441, 23 December 2019

A clear understanding of mosquito biology is fundamental to the control efforts of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a popular method of measuring the survival and dispersal of disease vectors; however, examples with African malaria vectors are limited. Ethical and technical difficulties involved in carrying out MMRR studies may have held back research in this area and, therefore, a device that marks mosquitoes as they emerge from breeding sites was developed and evaluated to overcome the problems of MMRR.

Functional genetic validation of key genes conferring insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

December 10, 2019 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adolfi A, Poulton B, Anthousi A, Macilwee S, Ranson H, Lycett GJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 4. pii: 201914633

Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.

Analysis of esterase enzyme activity in adults of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

March 3, 2016 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dahan-Moss Y, Koekemoer L
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors 2016, 9 :110 (27 February 2016)

The aim of this study was to analyse esterase activity levels at different ages during the life-span of adult Anopheles funestus Giles in order to better understand the complex biological processes in this species.

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