Pvs48/45 is a Plasmodium vivax gametocyte surface protein involved in the parasite fertilization process. Previous studies showed that Pvs48/45 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were highly immunoreactive with sera from malaria-endemic areas and highly immunogenic in animal models. Here the immunogenicity in mice of three different vaccine formulations was compared.
No abstract available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme deficiency, prevalent in many malaria-endemic countries. G6PD-deficient individuals are susceptible to hemolysis during oxidative stress, which can occur from exposure to certain medications, including 8-aminoquinolines used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria. Accordingly, access to point-of-care (POC) G6PD testing in Brazil is critical for safe treatment of P. vivax malaria.
Plasmodium vivax controlled-human-malaria-infection (PvCHMI) is an important tool for the evaluation of drugs, vaccines and pathologies associated with this parasite. However, there is little data on its safety due to the limited number of PvCHMIs performed to-date.
Plasmodium vivax causes significant public health problems in endemic regions. A vaccine to prevent disease is critical, considering the rapid spread of drug-resistant parasite strains, and the development of hypnozoites in the liver with potential for relapse. A minimally effective vaccine should prevent disease and transmission while an ideal vaccine provides sterile immunity. Areas covered: Despite decades of research, the complex life cycle, technical challenges and a lack of funding have hampered progress of P. vivax vaccine development.
Malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region is challenged by a rising proportion of malaria attributable to P. vivax. Primaquine (PQ) is effective in eliminating the parasite's dormant liver stages and can prevent relapsing infections, but it induces severe haemolysis in patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, highlighting the importance of testing enzyme activity prior to treatment.
Widespread resistance against antimalarial drugs thwarts current efforts for controlling the disease and urges the discovery of new effective treatments. Drug repositioning is increasingly becoming an attractive strategy since it can reduce costs, risks and time-to-market. Herein we have used this strategy to identify novel antimalarial hits. We performed a comparative in silico chemogenomics approach to select Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax proteins as potential drug targets and analyzed these using a computer-assisted drug repositioning pipeline to identify approved drugs with potential antimalarial activity. Among seven drugs identified as promising antimalarial candidates, the anthracycline epirubicin was selected for further experimental validation.
In recent times, Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) has become a serious threat to public health due to its ability to cause severe infection with fatal outcomes. Its unique biology makes it resilient to control measures that are otherwise effective against P. falciparum. A deeper understanding of P. vivax biology and pathogenesis is, therefore, essential for developing the right control strategies.
Plasmodium relapses are attributed to the activation of dormant liver-stage parasites and are responsible for a significant number of recurring malaria blood-stage infections.
PMT, like the pan-specific LDH biomarker used in RDT tests, is both soluble, present at comparable concentrations in the parasite and constitutes a promising antimalarial drug target.