It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in malaria.
We developed a newborn (NB) mouse Plasmodium yoelii NL infection model to study malaria in early age. Surprisingly, the onset of parasitemia in P. yoelii challenged NB mice was delayed compared to adults and coincided with the weaning date when weanlings switched from maternal milk to normal chow diet. Also, compared to adult mice, parasitemia resolved much later (48 days vs 20 days post challenge) and the peak parasitemia was twice as high in weanlings. Concurrently, weanlings' germinal center reaction was delayed and diminished compared to adult mice.
Once infected, hosts can rely on two strategies to cope with parasites: fight them (resist the infection) or minimize the damage they induce (tolerate the infection). While there is evidence that aging reduces resistance, how tolerance varies as hosts become old has been barely studied. Here, we used a rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium yoelii) to investigate whether 2- and 12-month old house mice differ in their capacity to resist and tolerate the infection.
The auxin-inducible degron (AID) system is a robust chemical-genetic method for manipulating endogenous protein level by conditional proteasomal degradation via a small molecule. So far, this system has not been adapted in the P. yoelii, an important and widely used Plasmodium rodent parasite model for malaria biology. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method, we generated two marker-free transgenic P. yoelii parasite lines (eef1a-Tir1 and soap-Tir1) stably expressing the Oryza sativa gene tir1 under the promoters of eef1a and soap respectively.
Well-defined promoters are essential elements for genetic studies in all organisms, and enable controlled expression of endogenous genes, transgene expression, and gene editing. Despite this, there is a paucity of defined promoters for the rodent-infectious malaria parasites. This is especially true for Plasmodium yoelii, which is often used to study the mosquito and liver stages of malarial infection, as well as host immune responses to infection.
Malaria is associated with complicated immunopathogenesis. In this study, we provide evidence for an unexpected role of TLR3 in promoting the establishment of Plasmodium yoelii infection through delayed clearance of parasitemia in wild type C57BL/6jRj (B6) compared with TLR3 knockout mice. In this study, we confirmed an increased expression of Tlr3, Trif, Tbk1, and Irf7/Irf3 in the liver 42 h postinfection and the initiation of an early burst of proinflammatory response such as Ifng, NF-kB, and Tnfa in B6 mice that may promote parasite fitness.
Malaria remains a widespread life-threatening infectious disease, leading to an estimated 219 million cases and around 435,000 deaths. After an unprecedented success, the antimalarial progress is at a standstill. Therefore, new methods are urgently needed to decrease drug resistant and enhance antimalarial efficacy.
Malaria strongly predisposes to bacteremia, which is associated with sequestration of parasitized red blood cells and increased gastrointestinal permeability. The mechanisms underlying this disruption are poorly understood. Here we evaluated the expression of factors associated with mast cell activation and malaria-associated bacteremia in a rodent model. C57BL/6J mice were infected with Plasmodium yoelii yoelli 17XNL and blood and tissues were collected over time to assay for circulating levels of bacterial 16S DNA, IgE, mast cell protease 1 (Mcpt-1) and Mcpt-4, Th1 and Th2 cytokines as well as patterns of ileal mastocytosis and intestinal permeability.
P. vivax-infected Retics (iRetics) express human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), are recognized by CD8+ T cells and killed by granulysin (GNLY) and granzymes. However, how Plasmodium infection induces MHC-I expression on Retics is unknown. In addition, whether GNLY helps control Plasmodium infection in vivo has not been studied. Here, we examine these questions using rodent infection with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, which has tropism for Retics.
CD4+ T cell functional inhibition (exhaustion) is a hallmark of malaria and correlates with impaired parasite control and infection chronicity. However, the mechanisms of CD4+ T cell exhaustion are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ag-experienced (Ag-exp) CD4+ T cell exhaustion during Plasmodium yoelii nonlethal infection occurs alongside the reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and restriction in CD4+ T cell glycolytic capacity. We demonstrate that the loss of glycolytic metabolism and mTOR activity within the exhausted Ag-expCD4+ T cell population during infection coincides with reduction in T-bet expression.