Malaria infection induces complex and diverse immune responses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying host–parasite interaction, we performed a genetic screen during early (24 h) Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice and identified a large number of interacting host and parasite genes/loci after transspecies expression quantitative trait locus (Ts-eQTL) analysis.
Only a small fraction of the antigens expressed by malaria parasites have been evaluated as vaccine candidates. A successful malaria subunit vaccine will likely require multiple antigenic targets to achieve broad protection with high protective efficacy. Here we describe protective efficacy of a novel antigen, Plasmodium yoelii (Py) E140 (PyE140), evaluated against P. yoelii challenge of mice.
Studies of Plasmodium sporozoites and liver stages require dissection of Anopheles mosquitoes to obtain sporozoites for experiments. Sporozoites from the rodent parasite P. yoelii are routinely used to infect hepatocytes for liver stage culture, but sometimes these cultures become contaminated. Using standard microbiological techniques, a single colony type of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was isolated from contaminated cultures.
Emerging data has suggested that Tregs, Th17, Th1 and Th2 are correlated with early immune mechanisms by controlling Plasmodium infection. Plasmodium infection appeared to impair the antigen presentation and maturation of DCs, leading to attenuation of specific cellular immune response ultimately. Hence, in this study, we aim to evaluate the relevance between DCs and Tregs/Th17 populations in the process and outcomes of infection with Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P.y17XL).
Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) aim to inhibit parasite fertilization or further development within the mosquito midgut. Because TBV-immunized individuals reduce the transmission of malaria parasites to mosquito vectors, TBVs could serve as a promising strategy to eliminate malaria.
Malaria parasites proliferate by repeated invasion of and multiplication within erythrocytes in the vertebrate host. Sexually committed intraerythrocytic parasites undergo sexual stage differentiation to become gametocytes. After ingestion by the mosquito, male and female gametocytes egress from erythrocytes and fertilize within the mosquito midgut. A complex signaling pathway likely responds to environmental events to trigger gametogenesis and regulate fertilization; however, such knowledge remains limited for malaria parasites.
Erythrocyte-binding-like (EBL) proteins are known to play an important role in malaria parasite invasion of red blood cells (RBCs); however, any roles of EBL proteins in regulating host immune responses remain unknown. Here, we show that Plasmodium yoelii EBL (PyEBL) can shape disease severity by modulating the surface structure of infected RBCs (iRBCs) and host immune responses. We identified an amino acid substitution (a change of C to Y at position 741 [C741Y]) in the protein trafficking domain of PyEBL between isogenic P. yoellii nigeriensis strain N67 and N67C parasites that produce different disease phenotypes in C57BL/6 mice.
Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of malaria outside Africa and represents a significant health and economic burden on affected countries. A major obstacle for P. vivax eradication is the dormant hypnozoite liver stage that causes relapse infections and the limited antimalarial drugs that clear this stage. Advances in studying the hypnozoite and other unique biological aspects of this parasite are hampered by the lack of a continuous in vitro laboratory culture system and poor availability of molecular tools for genetic manipulation. In this study, we aim to develop molecular tools that can be used for genetic manipulation of P. vivax.
Beyond the first few hours after injection, sporozoite-derived Plasmodium 18S rRNA was not detected in peripheral blood.
Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics.