Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP.
Malaria parasites are known to be vulnerable to oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of the administration of α-tocopheryloxy acetic acid (α-TEA), which is a vitamin E analogue mitocan, on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice were examined.
Malaria affects more than 200 million people annually around the world, killing a child every 2 min. Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard choice to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, they are hydrophobic compounds with low oral bioavailability. Microneedle (MN) arrays consist of micron-sized needles on one side of a supporting base and have the ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally invasive way, creating temporary channels through which drugs can diffuse, including those with poor water solubility.
Rodent malaria parasites are important models for studying host-malaria parasite interactions such as host immune response, mechanisms of parasite evasion of host killing, and vaccine development. One of the rodent malaria parasites is Plasmodium yoelii, and multiple P. yoelii strains or subspecies that cause different disease phenotypes have been widely employed in various studies. The genomes and transcriptomes of several P. yoelii strains have been analyzed and annotated, including the lethal strains of P. y. yoelii YM (or 17XL) and non-lethal strains of P. y. yoelii 17XNL/17X. Genomic DNA sequences and cDNA reads from another subspecies P. y. nigeriensis N67 have been reported for studies of genetic polymorphisms and parasite response to drugs, but its genome has not been assembled and annotated.
Malaria has high morbidity and mortality rates in some parts of tropical and subtropical countries. Besides respiratory and metabolic function, lung plays a role in immune system. γδT cells have multiple functions in producing cytokines and chemokines, regulating the immune response by interacting with other cells. It remains unclear about the role of γδT cells in the lung of mice infected by malaria parasites.
It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in malaria.
We developed a newborn (NB) mouse Plasmodium yoelii NL infection model to study malaria in early age. Surprisingly, the onset of parasitemia in P. yoelii challenged NB mice was delayed compared to adults and coincided with the weaning date when weanlings switched from maternal milk to normal chow diet. Also, compared to adult mice, parasitemia resolved much later (48 days vs 20 days post challenge) and the peak parasitemia was twice as high in weanlings. Concurrently, weanlings' germinal center reaction was delayed and diminished compared to adult mice.
Once infected, hosts can rely on two strategies to cope with parasites: fight them (resist the infection) or minimize the damage they induce (tolerate the infection). While there is evidence that aging reduces resistance, how tolerance varies as hosts become old has been barely studied. Here, we used a rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium yoelii) to investigate whether 2- and 12-month old house mice differ in their capacity to resist and tolerate the infection.
The auxin-inducible degron (AID) system is a robust chemical-genetic method for manipulating endogenous protein level by conditional proteasomal degradation via a small molecule. So far, this system has not been adapted in the P. yoelii, an important and widely used Plasmodium rodent parasite model for malaria biology. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method, we generated two marker-free transgenic P. yoelii parasite lines (eef1a-Tir1 and soap-Tir1) stably expressing the Oryza sativa gene tir1 under the promoters of eef1a and soap respectively.
Well-defined promoters are essential elements for genetic studies in all organisms, and enable controlled expression of endogenous genes, transgene expression, and gene editing. Despite this, there is a paucity of defined promoters for the rodent-infectious malaria parasites. This is especially true for Plasmodium yoelii, which is often used to study the mosquito and liver stages of malarial infection, as well as host immune responses to infection.