Artemisinin, isolated from Artemisia annua L., is recommended as the preferred drug to fight malaria. Previous research showed that JA mediated promotion of artemisinin accumulation was dependent on light. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction of light and JA in the regulation of artemisinin accumulation is still unknown. We identified a WRKY transcription factor, AaWRKY9, using transcriptome analysis.
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment was discovered in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. The biosynthesis of artemisinin is efficiently regulated by jasmonate (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) via regulatory factors. However, the mechanisms linking JA and ABA signaling with artemisinin biosynthesis through an associated regulatory network of downstream transcription factors (TFs) remain enigmatic.
Artemisia annua (annual mugwort) is a species that has long been used in traditional Asian medicine, mainly Chinese and Hindu. The species is widespread and known as a medicinal plant not only in Asia but also in Europe, in both Americas, and Australia. The species has become a subject of particular interest due to the 2015 Nobel Prize awarded for detecting the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin in it and proving its antimalarial activities. The raw materials obtained from this species are Artemisiae annuae folium and Artemisiae annuae herba.
Traditional remedies have been used for thousand years for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. Of growing interest, the plant Artemisia annua, known for its malarial properties, has been studied for its numerous biological activities including metabolic, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties.
Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua has been used efficiently in malaria treatment since 2005. In this study, the variations in plant parameters (plant biomass, glandular trichome density, essential oil total chemical content, artemisinin production, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity) were tested under different soil types (Luvisol, Gleysol, Anthrosol and sterile peat) and cultivation conditions (potted plants in semi-open field, and open field experiments) for plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rizophagus irregularis.
Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin, have been used for millennia to treat malaria. We used human liver microsomes (HLM) and rats to compare hepatic metabolism, tissue distribution, and inflammation attenuation by dried leaves of A. annua (DLA) and pure artemisinin. For HLM assays, extracts, teas, and phytochemicals from DLA were tested and IC50 values for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 were measured.
Dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) is the direct precursor to artemisinin, an effective anti-malaria compound from Artemisia annua L. (A. annua), and it can be transformed to artemisinin without the catalysis of enzyme.
This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and dietary components for an orally consumed plant delivered therapeutic and that artemisinin delivered via dried leaves would likely be more bioavailable if provided as a tablet instead of a capsule.
This review aims to highlight the complexities we face in the general study of medicinal plants at the hand of three levels of complexity. These levels consist of (a) the chemistry of the medicinal plant, (b) the influence of the preparation method on the chemistry of the final formulation and (c) the influence of metabolism on the chemistry of the formulation.
Here, we report a new sesquiterpene synthase from A. annua, α-bisabolol synthase (AaBOS), which has high sequence identity to amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (AaADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis.