Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs is an obstacle to the elimination of malaria in endemic areas. This situation is particularly dramatic for Africa, which accounts for nearly 92% of malaria cases worldwide. Drug pressure has been identified as a key factor in the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance. Indeed, this pressure is favoured by several factors, including the use of counterfeit forms of antimalarials, inadequate prescription controls, poor adherence to treatment regimens, dosing errors, and the increasing use of other forms of unapproved antimalarials.
Artemisinin (ART) is the most effective component in malaria treatment, however, the extremely low content restricts its clinical application. Therefore, it is urgent to increase the yield of ART. ART gradually accumulates with aging, small RNA (sRNA) and transcriptome analysis were applied on the leaves of 2-week-old (2 w) and 3-month-old (3 m) A. annua respectively.
Artemisinin, isolated from Artemisia annua L., is recommended as the preferred drug to fight malaria. Previous research showed that JA mediated promotion of artemisinin accumulation was dependent on light. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction of light and JA in the regulation of artemisinin accumulation is still unknown. We identified a WRKY transcription factor, AaWRKY9, using transcriptome analysis.
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment was discovered in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. The biosynthesis of artemisinin is efficiently regulated by jasmonate (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) via regulatory factors. However, the mechanisms linking JA and ABA signaling with artemisinin biosynthesis through an associated regulatory network of downstream transcription factors (TFs) remain enigmatic.
Artemisia annua (annual mugwort) is a species that has long been used in traditional Asian medicine, mainly Chinese and Hindu. The species is widespread and known as a medicinal plant not only in Asia but also in Europe, in both Americas, and Australia. The species has become a subject of particular interest due to the 2015 Nobel Prize awarded for detecting the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin in it and proving its antimalarial activities. The raw materials obtained from this species are Artemisiae annuae folium and Artemisiae annuae herba.
Traditional remedies have been used for thousand years for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. Of growing interest, the plant Artemisia annua, known for its malarial properties, has been studied for its numerous biological activities including metabolic, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties.
Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua has been used efficiently in malaria treatment since 2005. In this study, the variations in plant parameters (plant biomass, glandular trichome density, essential oil total chemical content, artemisinin production, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity) were tested under different soil types (Luvisol, Gleysol, Anthrosol and sterile peat) and cultivation conditions (potted plants in semi-open field, and open field experiments) for plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rizophagus irregularis.
Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin, have been used for millennia to treat malaria. We used human liver microsomes (HLM) and rats to compare hepatic metabolism, tissue distribution, and inflammation attenuation by dried leaves of A. annua (DLA) and pure artemisinin. For HLM assays, extracts, teas, and phytochemicals from DLA were tested and IC50 values for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 were measured.
Dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) is the direct precursor to artemisinin, an effective anti-malaria compound from Artemisia annua L. (A. annua), and it can be transformed to artemisinin without the catalysis of enzyme.
This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and dietary components for an orally consumed plant delivered therapeutic and that artemisinin delivered via dried leaves would likely be more bioavailable if provided as a tablet instead of a capsule.