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placental malaria

Generation of a malaria negative Ugandan birth weight standard for the diagnosis of small for gestational age

October 6, 2020 - 12:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zakama AK, Weekes T, Kajubi R, Kakuru A, Ategeka J, Kamya M, Muhindo MK, Havlir D, Jagannathan P, Dorsey G, Gaw SL
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 2;15(10):e0240157

Placental malaria is a known risk factor for small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. However, currently utilized international and African birthweight standards have not controlled for placental malaria and/or lack obstetrical ultrasound dating. We developed a neonatal birthweight standard based on obstetrically dated pregnancies that excluded individuals with clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia, and placental malaria infection. We hypothesized that current curves underestimate true ideal birthweight and the prevalence of SGA.

Placental Malaria

September 23, 2020 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zakama AK, Ozarslan N, Gaw SL
Reference: 
Curr Trop Med Rep. 2020 Sep 16:1-10

Placental malaria is the primary mechanism through which malaria in pregnancy causes adverse perinatal outcomes. This review summarizes recent work on the significance, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of placental malaria.

Antibodies to full-length and the DBL5 domain of VAR2CSA in pregnant women after long-term implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in Etoudi, Cameroon

August 18, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djontu JC, Lloyd YM, Megnekou R, Seumko'o RMN, Salanti A, Taylor DW, Leke RGF
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(8): e0237671

In high malaria transmission settings, the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) has resulted in decreased antibody (Ab) levels to VAR2CSA. However, information of Ab levels in areas of low or intermediate malaria transmission after long-term implementation of IPTp-SP is still lacking. The present study sought to evaluate antibody prevalence and levels in women at delivery in Etoudi, a peri-urban area in the capital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, that is a relatively low-malaria transmission area.

Gravidity-dependent associations between interferon response and birth weight in placental malaria

August 10, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Natalie M. Quanquin, Lauren G. Barres, Stephanie L. Gaw, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:280, 5 August 2020

Maternal malarial infection leads to poor perinatal outcomes, including low birth weight from preterm delivery and/or fetal growth restriction, particularly in primigravidas. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells cause an inflammatory response that can interfere with maternal–fetal exchange, leading to poor growth. The type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway plays an immunomodulatory role in viral and bacterial infections, usually by suppressing inflammatory responses. However, its role in placental malaria is unknown. This study examines the cytokine responses in placental tissue from subsets of malaria-infected and uninfected women, and attempts to correlate them with particular birth outcomes.

The impact of gravidity, symptomatology and timing of infection on placental malaria

June 26, 2020 - 11:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Erin E. Tran, Morgan L. Cheeks, Stephanie L. Gaw, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:227, 24 June 2020

Placental malaria is associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. While primigravidity has been reported as a risk factor for placental malaria, little is known regarding the relationship between gravidity, symptomatology and timing of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the development of placental malaria.

VAR2CSA binding phenotype has ancient origin and arose before Plasmodium falciparum crossed to humans: implications in placental malaria vaccine design

November 19, 2019 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stéphane Gangnard, Arnaud Chêne, Sébastien Dechavanne, Anand Srivastava, Marion Avril, Joseph D. Smith & Benoît Gamain
Reference: 
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 16978 (2019)

We explored the possibility that conserved epitopes could exist between VAR2CSA from the chimpanzee parasite Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium falciparum sequences. Making use of VAR2CSA recombinant proteins originating from both species, we showed that VAR2CSA from P. reichenowi (Pr-VAR2CSA) binds to the placental receptor CSA with high specificity and affinity.

Statistical prediction of immunity to placental malaria based on multi-assay antibody data for malarial antigens

October 3, 2017 - 17:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chathura Siriwardhana, Rui Fang, Ali Salanti, Rose G. F. Leke, Naveen Bobbili, Diane Wallace Taylor and John J. Chen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2017 16:391, 29 September 2017

Not surprising, significant differences were observed between PM positive (PM+) and PM negative (PM−) groups for Ab levels to the majority of malaria antigens.

Impact of placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on the Cameroonian maternal and neonate’s plasma levels of some cytokines known to regulate T cells differentiation and function

November 22, 2016 - 17:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jean Claude Djontu, Stalone Siewe Siewe, Rosette Megnekou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2016 15:561, 21 November 2016

Placental malaria downregulates maternal plasma levels of IL-17E, IL-27 and IL-28A and neonates’ plasma levels of IL-17E and IL-28A cytokines, which could help for parasite clearance and increase child birth weight.

Antibody responses to the full-length VAR2CSA and its DBL domains in Cameroonian children and teenagers

November 9, 2016 - 17:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barriere A. Y. Fodjo, Njika Atemnkeng, Anna Babakhanyan, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2016 15:532, 4 November 2016

The study suggests that children, including teenage girls acquire Ab to VAR2CSA domains and FV2, but Ab levels are much lower than those needed to protect women from placental infections and repertoire of Ab responses to DBL domains is different from those in pregnant women. Interestingly, children with severe malaria did not have higher Ab levels to VAR2CSA compared to healthy children.

Parasite dynamics in the peripheral blood and the placenta during pregnancy-associated malaria infection

September 27, 2016 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lauren M. Cohee, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Patricia Mawindo, Sudhaunshu Joshi, Matthew Adams, Leo Kenefic, Christopher G. Jacob, Terrie E. Taylor and Miriam K. Laufer
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2016 15:483, 21 September 2016

Placental malaria can occur at any time during pregnancy.

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