Since the implementation of Roll Back Malaria, the widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is thought to have played a major part in the decrease in mortality and morbidity achieved in malaria-endemic regions. In the past decade, resistance to major classes of insecticides recommended for public health has spread across many malaria vector populations. Increasingly, malaria vectors are also showing changes in vector behaviour in response to current indoor chemical vector control interventions.
indoor residual spraying (IRS)
The long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are major malaria vector control strategies in Mali. The success of control strategies depends on a better understanding of the status of malaria vectors with respect to the insecticides used. In this study we evaluate the level of resistance of Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) to bendiocarb and the molecular mechanism that underlies it.
Control programmes for high burden countries are tasked with charting effective multi-year strategies for malaria control within significant resource constraints. Synergies between different control tools, in which more than additive benefit accrues from interventions used together, are of interest because they may be used to obtain savings or to maximize health impact per expenditure. One commonly used intervention in sub-Saharan Africa is indoor residual spraying (IRS), typically deployed through a mass campaign. While possible synergies between IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been investigated in multiple transmission settings, coordinated synergy between IRS and other mass medical distribution campaigns have not attracted much attention. Recently, a strong timing-dependent synergy between an IRS campaign and a mass drug administration (MDA) was theoretically quantified. These synergistic benefits likely differ across settings depending on transmission intensity and its overall seasonal pattern.
The best configuration of push–pull comprised transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons plus two traps, each at least 15 m from huts.
The prevalence of IRS and ITN interventions in 2013 did not reflect the Namibian government intervention targets.
Data generated by this study will strengthen the National Malaria Control Programme’s insecticide resistance management strategy to safeguard continued efficacy of IRS and other malaria control methods in Ethiopia.
By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects.
Substantial reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality can be made by optimal targeting of investments to the right malaria interventions in the right areas.
The use of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin together as a mixture on nets (Interceptor® G2 LN) or a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and pyrethroid LN intervention provides improved control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors by inducing significantly higher levels of mortality through the chlorfenapyr component and providing personal protection through the pyrethroid component.
While long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of malaria vector control throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is an urgent need for the development of novel insecticide delivery mechanisms to sustain and consolidate gains in disease reduction and to transition towards malaria elimination and eradication.