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indoor residual spraying (IRS)

The need for new vector control approaches targeting outdoor biting Anopheline malaria vector communities

June 12, 2020 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Sougoufara S, Ottih EC, Tripet F
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 10; 13(1):295

Since the implementation of Roll Back Malaria, the widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is thought to have played a major part in the decrease in mortality and morbidity achieved in malaria-endemic regions. In the past decade, resistance to major classes of insecticides recommended for public health has spread across many malaria vector populations. Increasingly, malaria vectors are also showing changes in vector behaviour in response to current indoor chemical vector control interventions.

Acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) target site mutation G119S and resistance to carbamates in Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) populations from Mali

June 8, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Keïta M, Kané F, Thiero O, Traoré B, Zeukeng F, Sodio AB, Traoré SF, Djouaka R, Doumbia S, Sogoba N
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 5; 13(1):283

The long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are major malaria vector control strategies in Mali. The success of control strategies depends on a better understanding of the status of malaria vectors with respect to the insecticides used. In this study we evaluate the level of resistance of Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) to bendiocarb and the molecular mechanism that underlies it.

Synergy and timing: a concurrent mass medical campaign predicted to augment indoor residual spraying for malaria

May 7, 2019 - 13:54 -- Open Access
Richard C. Elliott, David L. Smith and Dorothy C. Echodu
Malaria Journal 2019 18:160, 6 May 2019

Control programmes for high burden countries are tasked with charting effective multi-year strategies for malaria control within significant resource constraints. Synergies between different control tools, in which more than additive benefit accrues from interventions used together, are of interest because they may be used to obtain savings or to maximize health impact per expenditure. One commonly used intervention in sub-Saharan Africa is indoor residual spraying (IRS), typically deployed through a mass campaign. While possible synergies between IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been investigated in multiple transmission settings, coordinated synergy between IRS and other mass medical distribution campaigns have not attracted much attention. Recently, a strong timing-dependent synergy between an IRS campaign and a mass drug administration (MDA) was theoretically quantified. These synergistic benefits likely differ across settings depending on transmission intensity and its overall seasonal pattern.

Evaluation of a push–pull system consisting of transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons and odour-baited traps for control of indoor- and outdoor-biting malaria vectors

March 20, 2019 - 16:09 -- Open Access
Arnold S. Mmbando, Elis P. A. Batista, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:87, 20 March 2019

The best configuration of push–pull comprised transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons plus two traps, each at least 15 m from huts.

A cross-sectional analysis of ITN and IRS coverage in Namibia in 2013

July 17, 2018 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Sophie H. Allcock, Elizabeth H. Young and Manjinder S. Sandhu
Malaria Journal 2018 17:264, 16 July 2018

The prevalence of IRS and ITN interventions in 2013 did not reflect the Namibian government intervention targets.


Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia (2012–2016): a nationwide study for insecticide resistance monitoring

November 20, 2017 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Louisa A. Messenger, Josephat Shililu, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, et al.
Malaria Journal 2017 16:469, 18 November 2017

Data generated by this study will strengthen the National Malaria Control Programme’s insecticide resistance management strategy to safeguard continued efficacy of IRS and other malaria control methods in Ethiopia.


Modelling the impact of the long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets on Anopheles mosquito biting time

September 19, 2017 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Claudia P. Ferreira, Silas P. Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh and Eduardo Massad
Malaria Journal 2017 16:373, 15 September 2017

By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects.

Maximizing the impact of malaria funding through allocative efficiency: using the right interventions in the right locations

September 14, 2017 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Nick Scott, S. Azfar Hussain, David P. Wilson, et al.
Malaria Journal 2017 16:368, 12 September 2017

Substantial reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality can be made by optimal targeting of investments to the right malaria interventions in the right areas.

Which intervention is better for malaria vector control: insecticide mixture long-lasting insecticidal nets or standard pyrethroid nets combined with indoor residual spraying?

August 22, 2017 - 17:41 -- Open Access
Corine Ngufor, Josias Fagbohoun, Jessica Critchley, Raphael N’Guessan, Damien Todjinou, David Malone, Martin Akogbeto and Mark Rowland
Malaria Journal 2017 16:340, 16 August 2017

The use of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin together as a mixture on nets (Interceptor® G2 LN) or a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and pyrethroid LN intervention provides improved control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors by inducing significantly higher levels of mortality through the chlorfenapyr component and providing personal protection through the pyrethroid component.


Insecticide-treated durable wall lining (ITWL): future prospects for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

May 25, 2017 - 08:14 -- Open Access
Louisa A. Messenger and Mark Rowland
Malaria Journal 2017 16:213, 22 May 2017

While long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of malaria vector control throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is an urgent need for the development of novel insecticide delivery mechanisms to sustain and consolidate gains in disease reduction and to transition towards malaria elimination and eradication.


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