Ethiopia has made great strides in malaria control over the last two decades. However, this progress has not been uniform and one concern has been reported high rates of malaria transmission in large agricultural development areas in western Ethiopia. Improved vector control is one way this transmission might be addressed, but little is known about malaria vectors in this part of the country.
Since the advent of the Green Revolution, pesticides have played an important role in the global management of invertebrate pests including vector mosquitoes. Despite optimal efficacy, insects often display insensitivity to synthetic insecticides owing to prolonged exposure that may select for resistance development. Such insecticide insensitivity may regress national and regional coordination in mosquito vector management and indeed malaria control. In Botswana, prolonged use of synthetic insecticides against malaria vectors have been practiced without monitoring of targeted mosquito species susceptibility status.
Successful implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against Aedes albopictus and Anopheles arabiensis relies on a continuous supply of sterile males. To meet this requirement, optimization of the mass-rearing techniques is needed. This study, therefore, aims to assess a new mass-rearing cage (MRC) in terms of egg production efficiency and egg hatch rate (quality).
In Dielmo, Senegal, the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets has decreased both the incidence of malaria and the density of the Anopheles population. However, persistent low-level malaria transmission may hamper efforts to eliminate the disease. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the vector population is needed in order to improve knowledge of Anopheles biting behaviour and to readjust control interventions.
Despite the overall major impact of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in eliciting individual and collective protection to malaria infections, some sub-Saharan countries, including Burkina Faso, still carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. This study aims to analyse the possible entomological bases of LLIN limited impact, focusing on a LLIN-protected village in the Plateau Central region of Burkina Faso.
A possible malaria control approach involves the dissemination in mosquitoes of inherited symbiotic microbes to block Plasmodium transmission. However, in the Anopheles gambiae complex, the primary African vectors of malaria, there are limited reports of inherited symbionts that impair transmission. We show that a vertically transmitted microsporidian symbiont (Microsporidia MB) in the An. gambiae complex can impair Plasmodium transmission.
Malaria vector mosquitoes acquire midgut microbiota primarily from their habitat. The homeostasis of these microbial communities plays an essential role in the mosquito longevity, the most essential factor in the mosquito vectorial capacity. Our recent study revealed that silencing genes involved in regulation of the midgut homeostasis including FN3D1, FN3D3 and GPRGr9 reduced the survival of female adult Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. In the present study, we investigate the stability of the gene silencing efficiency of mosquitoes reared in three different breeding conditions representing distinct larval habitat types: town brick pits in Jimma, flood pools in the rural land of Asendabo and roadside pools in Wolkite.
Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on animal as well as human hosts. Targeting the vector, while feeding on animals, can provide an additional intervention for the current vector control activities. Agricultural animals are regularly vaccinated with recombinant proteins for the control of multiple endo- and ecto-parasitic infestations. The use of a Subolesin-vaccine showed a mark reduction in tick reproductive fitness.
With the fight against malaria reportedly stalling there is an urgent demand for alternative and sustainable control measures. As the sterile insect technique (SIT) edges closer to becoming a viable complementary tool in mosquito control, it will be necessary to find standardized techniques of assessing male quality throughout the production system and post-irradiation handling. Flight ability is known to be a direct marker of insect quality. A new version of the reference International Atomic Energy Agency/Food and Agricultural Organization (IAEA/FAO) flight test device (FTD), modified to measure the flight ability and in turn quality of male Anopheles arabiensis within a 2-h period via a series of verification experiments is presented.
Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex breed in clean, sunlit temporary bodies of water. Anthropogenic pollution is, however, altering the breeding sites of the vectors with numerous biological effects. Although the effects of larval metal pollution have previously been examined, this study aims to assess the transgenerational effects of larval metal pollution on the major malaria vector An. arabiensis.