Effective malaria surveillance requires detailed assessments of mosquitoes biting indoors, where interventions such as insecticide-treated nets work best, and outdoors, where other interventions may be required. Such assessments often involve volunteers exposing their legs to attract mosquitoes [i.e., human landing catches (HLC)], a procedure with significant safety and ethical concerns. Here, an exposure-free, miniaturized, double-net trap (DN-Mini) is used to assess relationships between indoor–outdoor biting preferences of malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and their physiological ages (approximated by parity and insemination states).
The propensity of different Anopheles mosquitoes to bite humans instead of other vertebrates influences their capacity to transmit pathogens to humans. Unfortunately, determining proportions of mosquitoes that have fed on humans, i.e. Human Blood Index (HBI), currently requires expensive and time-consuming laboratory procedures involving enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Here, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and supervised machine learning are used to accurately distinguish between vertebrate blood meals in guts of malaria mosquitoes, without any molecular techniques.
This is the first study to investigate the circulation of insecticide resistance alleles in An. arabiensis from Cabo Verde.
The putative diagnostic doses of clothianidin and chlorfenapyr are appropriate for monitoring resistance in An. arabiensis from Ethiopia.
The attraction of gravid females to sugarcane pollen volatiles demonstrated in this study, together with the previously found grass-associated volatiles, raise the potential of developing a bioactive chimeric blend to attract gravid malaria mosquitoes.
Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to ∼78% of the reduction in the malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000.
The results showed that the FAO/IAEA mass-rearing process did not affect mosquito life history parameters or the mating competitiveness of males.
Ivermectin is an effective insecticide for use in sugar baits.
Variation in the abundance of indoor-resting Anopheles in rural houses of western Kenya varies with clearly identifiable factors.
The study has demonstrated the potential for detailed investigations of behaviour of wild mosquito populations under field conditions.