The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and prevailing form of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Previously, we identified the plasmodial lactate transporter, PfFNT, a member of the microbial formate-nitrite transporter family, as a novel antimalarial drug target. With the pentafluoro-3-hydroxy-pent-2-en-1-ones, we discovered PfFNT inhibitors that potently kill P. falciparum parasites in vitro.
Gametogenesis, the formation of gametes from gametocytes, an essential step for malaria parasite transmission, is targeted by transmission-blocking drugs and vaccines. We identified a conserved protein (PBANKA_0305900) in Plasmodium berghei, which encodes a protein of 22 kDa (thus named Pb22) and is expressed in both asexual stages and gametocytes. Its homologs are present in all Plasmodium species and its closely related Hepatocystis, but not in other apicomplexans. Pb22 protein was localized in the cytosols of schizonts, as well as male and female gametocytes.
Multi-stage drugs have been prioritized in antimalarial drug discovery, as targeting more than one process in the Plasmodium life cycle is likely to increase efficiency, while decreasing the chances of emergence of resistance by the parasite. Herein, we disclose two novel acridine-based families of compounds that combine the structural features of primaquine and chloroquine.
The worldwide genus Anopheles Meigen, 1918 is the only genus containing species evolved as vectors of human and simian malaria. Morbidity and mortality caused by Plasmodium Marchiafava & Celli, 1885 is tremendous, which has made these parasites and their vectors the objects of intense research aimed at mosquito identification, malaria control and elimination. DNA tools make the identification of Anopheles species both easier and more difficult. Easier in that putative species can nearly always be separated based on DNA data; more difficult in that attaching a scientific name to a species is often problematic because morphological characters are often difficult to interpret or even see; and DNA technology might not be available and affordable. Added to this are the many species that are either not yet recognized or are similar to, or identical with, named species. The first step in solving Anopheles identification problem is to attach a morphology-based formal or informal name to a specimen. These names are hypotheses to be tested with further morphological observations and/or DNA evidence. The overarching objective is to be able to communicate about a given species under study. In South America, morphological identification which is the first step in the above process is often difficult because of lack of taxonomic expertise and/or inadequate identification keys, written for local fauna, containing the most consequential species, or obviously, do not include species described subsequent to key publication.
Malaria is a devastating disease caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. The most common Plasmodium species that infect humans are Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which together cause the vast amount of the disease’s morbidity and mortality worldwide. From a clinical perspective, Plasmodium causes a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic to severe.
Vector-borne diseases in the United States have recently increased as a result of the changing nature of vectors, hosts, reservoirs, parasite/pathogens, and the ecological and environmental conditions. While most focus has been on mosquito-borne pathogens affecting humans, little is known regarding parasites of companion animal, livestock and wildlife and their potential mosquito hosts in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of mature infections of Dirofilaria immitis and avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida) within urban mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in Oklahoma.
According to China’s Malaria Eradication Action Plan, malaria cases diagnosed and reported by health authorities at the county level must be further re-confirmed by provincial laboratories. The Yunnan Province Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory (YPMDRL) began the synchronous implementation of microscopic examinations and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) testing to re-test the malaria cases initially diagnosed by county-level laboratories and to evaluate the consistency of Plasmodium species identified between by YPMDRL and by the county-level laboratories from 2013 to 2018 in Yunnan Province.
This study presents the malaria burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), by analyzing disease burden indicators in federated units of the Legal Amazon and Extra-Amazon regions, as well as describing malaria cases according to Plasmodium species occurring in the country.
Village chicken production, a traditional, small-scale, and extensive backyard poultry industry, has been profitable for local farmers in Myanmar. However, there is scanty information available concerning the infection of these chickens with avian pathogens, including haemoprotozoan parasites. In the present study, we provide the first report of microscopic detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium parasites from seven different areas of Myanmar. Leucocytozoon gametocytes were detected in 17.6% (81/461) of the blood smears from village chickens.
Malaria is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged <5 y (U5s). This study assessed individual, household and community risk factors for malaria in Nigerian U5s.