Malaysia aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, while cases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have decreased substantially, the incidence of zoonotic malaria from Plasmodium knowlesi continues to increase, presenting a major challenge to regional malaria control efforts. Here we report incidence of all Plasmodium species in Sabah, including zoonotic P. knowlesi, during 2015–2017.
Malaria remains a global health problem and accurate surveillance of Plasmodium parasites that are responsible for this disease is required to guide the most effective distribution of control measures. Serological surveillance will be particularly important in areas of low or periodic transmission because patient antibody responses can provide a measure of historical exposure. While methods for detecting host antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are well established, development of serological assays for Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae have been inhibited by a lack of immunodiagnostic candidates due to the limited availability of genomic information.
Malaria is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the Plasmodium genus, which resulted in an estimated 219 million cases of malaria and 435 000 malaria-related deaths in 2017. Despite the availability of the Plasmodium falciparum genome since 2002, 74% of the genes remain uncharacterized. To remedy this paucity of functional information, we used transcriptomic data to build gene co-expression networks for two Plasmodium species (P. falciparum and P. berghei), and included genomic data of four other Plasmodium species, P. yoelii, P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. cynomolgi, as well as two non-Plasmodium species from the Apicomplexa, Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria parva.
Asymptomatic falciparum and non-falciparum malaria infections are major challenges to malaria control interventions, as they remain a source of continual infection in the community. This becomes even more important as the debate moves towards elimination and eradication.
The potential adaptive nature of this manipulation of mosquito behaviour is discussed in the light of previous studies on other malaria models.
Blood clots from human and non-human primates may be an important and low cost source of DNA for malaria surveillance in the Atlantic Forest.
Although this study showed clearly that the most prevalent species identified was P. falciparum, the findings demonstrate the existence of non-falciparum malaria, especially P. malariae and P. vivax among children aged ≤ 5 years living both Kinshasa and North Kivu Provinces in DRC.
The present work shows that the potential of in situ LAMP for the identification of Plasmodium species at the single cell level on hydrophilic-treated COC palates, allowing highly sensitive and accurate malaria diagnosis.
On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour).
Both Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels correlate with and can distinguish between malaria disease severity states within the group of malaria-infected patients.